Obesity Research and Prevention Newsletter Review: 7 November 2011

by Paul Boisvert, PhD in collaboration with the Canadian Obesity Network  (CON)  and The Research Chair in Obesity from Université Laval
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 Network
News               

Archive: Obesity Research and Prevention Newsletter Review: Vol
9 no 25: 24 Oct 2011

International Congress on Abdominal Obesity Quebec City 9 to 12 July (Abstracts submission open)
Post doctoral Fellowship in Obesity in Université
Laval or University of Alberta: deadline 14 November

Epidemiology
– Evaluation
                               
Physical Activity Attenuates the Influence of FTO
Variants on Obesity Risk: A Meta-Analysis
31 oct
Carrying a copy of the FTO gene increases the risk of
becoming obese. However, the effect of the gene on obesity was 27 percent less
pronounced in individuals who were physically active compared with those who
were inactive.


Etiology – Determinants   
                               
Hormones linked to weight regain by making you more
hungry than before losing weight
– NEJM 27
Oct
The dieters also rated themselves as feeling hungrier
after meals at the one-year mark, compared to what they reported before the
diet program began. The key finding came from comparing the hormone levels from
before the weight-loss program to one year after it was over. Six hormones were
still out of whack in a direction that would boost hunger.
                            
This review summarizes the evidence and mechanistic insights on the
associations between RAS, obesity and insulin resistance, with special emphasis
on the role of adipose tissue RAS in the pathogenesis of metabolic derangements
in obesity.
Blood Glucose Levels Modulate Neural Control of
Appetite
 1 Nov Arya Sharma
Anyone, who has ever experienced even a mild drop in
blood glucose levels, understands the notion of hunger – preferentially
activating limbic-striatal brain regions.  In contrast, high-normal blood
glucose levels preferentially activated the medial prefrontal cortex, an area
of the brain involved in regulating impulse control and reducing motivation for
rewarding stimuli such as food and drugs. Interestingly, however, higher
circulating glucose levels predicted greater medial prefrontal cortex
activation only in lean but not in obese subjects.


Complications 
                                                    
Slide kit: Impact of obesity on cardiometabolic
risk: Will we lose the battle?
Treatment                                                        
High-Dose Vitamin D
Supplements Benefit Obese Adolescents
 3 Nov
Obese adolescents are only about half as efficient at
using vitamin D as their lean counterparts. For example, in lean adolescents it
only takes about 100 IUs to increase their serum 25OHD levels by 1 ng/ml. In
obese adolescents, it takes about 200 IUs to achieve the same increase ; If
obese adolescents only consumed the recommended 600 IUs, they would be in trouble;
physicians need to carefully evaluate the vitamin D status in their overweight
and obese patients
Obesity Pill Could Fool Brain To Eat Less  27 Oct
if we were to take a pill based on two simple gut
hormones (PYY and GLP-1) we would eat less because it would fool the brain by
signalling we’re full even if we’re not. In studies, volunteers who took one or
other of the hormones experienced reduced appetite and ate less.

Management – Prevention                                       
 
Video:
Intervention studies on food and built environments in four communities in
Alberta
5 Oct
Interview with Kim Raine

Commercial weight loss programs of 12 weeks’ duration
more effective than NHS-based services
, UK study finds  3 Nov
Commercial weight loss programmes are more effective
and cheaper than primary care based services led by specially trained staff,
finds a study published on bmj.com. The programmes included in the analyses
were Weight Watchers; Slimming World; Rosemary Conley; a group-based dietetics
programme; general practice one to one counselling, pharmacy one to one
counselling. All programmes achieved significant weight loss after 12 weeks,
with the average weight loss ranging from 4.4 kg (Weight Watchers) to 1.4 kg
(general practice provision). The primary care programmes were no better than
the control group at 12 weeks.

 Policy – Regulations                                           
       
Everything you need to know about the front of package
label regulation
Marion Nestle 6 Nov
front-of-package labels regulation is a test of the
FDA’s authority to regulate and set limits on any kind of food industry
behavior. If the FDA cannot insist that food labels help the public choose
healthier foods, it means the public has little recourse against any kind of
corporate power.

 Children – Pediatrics                       
                   
Childhood Diet Lower In Fat And Higher In Fiber May
Lower Risk For Chronic Disease In Adulthood
 31 Oct
A recent study has found that a childhood behavioral
intervention to lower dietary intake of total fat and saturated fat and
increase consumption of foods that are good sources of dietary fiber resulted
in significantly lower fasting plasma glucose levels and lower systolic blood
pressure when study participants were re-evaluated in young adulthood.

Overweight Teens Want To Lose Weight, Go About It The
Wrong Way
1 Nov
While most of the obese teens reported trying to lose
weight (about 75 percent), this group was also more likely to report smoking.
In addition, females trying to lose weight were more likely to report
participating in 60 minutes or more of physical activity per day; however,
these females were also prone to consume soda on a daily basis – regular, not
diet. Males who were trying to lose weight were more likely to report having no
days of physical activity, and also reported playing more than three hours of
video games per day.

Preventing
Obesity Among Preschool Children: How Can Child-care Settings Promote Healthy
Eating and Physical Activity?
Oct 
Research Synthesis Report

 Nutrition – Diet                                 
                   
A handful of nuts a day can keep hunger at bay and
beat belly fat
 3 Nov
This is the first time a link between eating nuts and
higher levels of serotonin – a substance that decreases appetite, boosts
happiness and improves heart health – has been detected. 90 per cent of the
body’s serotonin is located in the gut while he remainder is found in the
central nervous system where it regulates mood and appetite. Most prescribed
drugs used to treat conditions such as depression,  anxiety disorder and
social phobia treat are designed to alter serotonin levels.

 Physical Activity – Sedentarity                              
5 interviews on obesity, exercise and sedentary
behaviour
Obesity Panacea 22 Oct #csep11
Exercise May Reduce
Risk of Depression in Seniors
 3 Nov
Elderly people who are physically active are less
depressed, but higher levels of depression can also lead to less exercise. What
motivates elderly people to be physically active? Modern behavioral theories
suggest individuals who feel they are competent, make decisions for themselves,
have freedom of choice, and feel social relatedness linked to physical activity
experience a more internal and a less controlled form of motivation for
exercise.

Addicted to Exercise?NYTimes.com  29 Oct
Professor Linden explains how drugs such as cocaine
that light up these pleasure centers (there are several interconnected areas)
actually rewire the brain to increase cravings. Brain scans suggest that
everything from sugar to sex lights up the brain’s pleasure circuitry. Exercise
addicts display all of the hallmarks of substance addicts: tolerance, craving,
withdrawal and the need to exercise ‘just to feel normal

 Behaviour
– Consumption
                  
              
Slow eating may help weight control by suppressing the appetite more
efficiently
  BBC-news 27 Oct

People Pay Less Attention To Nutrition Labels Fact
Than They Think They Do
 26 Oct

These results differed from the
self-reported survey responses describing typical grocery shopping and health
behaviors submitted by the participants. 33% of participants self-reported that
they nearly always look at calorie content.

 Industry –
Marketing
                  
                
    
Self regulation by industry of food marketing is
having little impact during children’s preferred television
 October

The CAI (Canadian Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative)
was responsible for significantly more food/beverage promotions, and used media
characters and repetition more frequently in their food/beverage promotions
than the non-CAI group. Nutritionally, the CAI food/beverage promotions were
higher in fats, sugar, sodium and energy per 100 grams. A significantly greater
proportion of the CAI food/beverage promotions were considered ‘less healthy’
compared to the non-CAI promotions. The commitments that have been made in the
CAI are not having a significant impact on the food and beverage marketing
environment on television which is viewed by 10–12-year-olds.
The consumption of sugary sodas
has grown so much over the last three decades that they are now the number 1
source of calories in the diets of American teenagers. They found that the
sugary drinks industry specifically targets young Americans, especially
Hispanics and African-Americans. « Sugary Drinks FACTS »
« Summary of the Report » (PDF – 6 pages long)
« The Whole Report » (PDF, 232 pages long)

Obesity Research and Prevention News Review:: November 21 2011

by Paul Boisvert, PhD in collaboration with the Canadian Obesity Network  (CON)  and The Research Chair in Obesity from Université Laval
Follow Obesity News and more news on Twitter

Epidemiology – Evaluation                               
‘Freshman College 15’ Weight Gain a Myth? ‘Freshman 3’
May Be More Realistic
– NYTimes 7 Nov
According to a new study, freshmen actually gain an
average of 2.5 to 3.5 pounds, and the weight gain has little to do with college
attendance.

New Research Calls For Lower Limit To Be Set For South Asian Obesity
Level
: 9 Nov
Study determines that BMI 23-28 kg/m2 should be limit
compared with current limit of BMI 30 kg/m2, due to increased risk of heart
disease and diabetes among South Asians

Kids whose fathers were overweight were +4 times more
likely than other children to have weight problems themselves
11 Nov
On the other hand, an overweight or obese mother made
little difference to the chances of her child developing their own weight
problems.

Childhood Obesity Rate Dropping – California  14 Nov
From 2005 to 2010 the obesity/overweight rate in
children in California dropped one percentage point, offering hope that the
three-decade-long increase may be finally turning. However, the authors
emphasize that rates are still extremely high – three times higher among 12-19
year olds and four times higher among 6-11 year olds than they were in the
1970s.

Etiology – Determinants
                                
Gut Hormones PYY(3-36) and GLP-1(7-36 amide) can Mimic
Food Effects On Brain

DrSharma  11 Nov
Hunger and satiety are mediated by a range of
peripheral signals to the brain. A new study published in
Cell Metabolism, shows that infusion of two gut hormones can reduce food intake and
mimic the central effects of a meal in humans.

Metabolism Boosted By Enzyme, Weight Gain Prevented In Mice 16 Nov
Male and female mice engineered to express the
inflammatory enzyme IKKbeta in their fat tissue ate more but gained less
weight. They burned sugar and fat more effectively than mice who were left
unaltered. The research may shed light on how obesity and inflammation affect
insulin resistance and sensitivity.
 Role of the hypothalamus in the neuroendocrine
regulation of body weight and composition during energy deficit.
 Obesity Reviews – Nov
Energy deficit in lean or obese animals or humans
stimulates appetite, reduces energy expenditure and possibly also decreases
physical activity, thereby contributing to weight regain. Often overlooked in
weight loss trials for obesity, however, is the effect of energy restriction on
neuroendocrine status. Negative energy balance in lean animals and humans
consistently inhibits activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid,
-gonadotropic and -somatotropic axes (or reduces circulating insulin-like
growth factor-1 levels), while concomitantly activating the
hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, with emerging evidence of similar changes
in overweight and obese people during lifestyle interventions for weight loss.
These neuroendocrine changes, which animal studies show may result in part from
hypothalamic actions of orexigenic (e.g. neuropeptide Y, agouti-related
peptide) and anorexigenic peptides (e.g. alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone,
and cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript), can adversely affect body
composition by promoting the accumulation of adipose tissue (particularly
central adiposity) and stimulating the loss of lean body mass and bone.
Health benefits of substituting water for
sugar-sweetened beverages
– YouTube myhealthywaist  8 Nov
This video presented by leading researchers and health
experts at the Sustaining the Blue Planet: Global Water Education Conference
details findings and applications on the importance of healthful hydration.
Let’s Go! School Nutrition Manager  examined the finding that healthy
hydration by water and decrease of sweetened beverages could help in reducing
cardiometabolic risk.
Drinking to our health: can beverage companies cut
calories while maintaining profits?
– Obesity Reviews – Nov
On a global basis, total revenues and energy per
capita sold increased, yet the average energy density (kJ 100 mL−1)
sold declined slightly, suggesting a shift to lower-calorie products. In the
United States, both total energy per capita and average energy density of
beverages sold decreased, while the opposite was true in the developing markets
of Brazil and China, with total per capita energy increasing greatly in China
and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil.


Fatty Foods Addictive as Cocaine in Growing Body of
Science
– Businessweek   9 Nov
A growing body of medical research at leading
universities and government laboratories suggests that processed foods and
sugary drinks made by the likes of PepsiCo Inc. and Kraft Foods Inc. aren’t
simply unhealthy. They can hijack the brain in ways that resemble addictions to
cocaine, nicotine and other drugs. Lab studies have found sugary drinks and
fatty foods can produce addictive behavior in animals. Brain scans of obese
people and compulsive eaters, meanwhile, reveal disturbances in brain reward
circuits similar to those experienced by drug abusers.


Complications 
                                                    
5 ways to reduce your risk of diabetes – 8 Nov
Drop extra pounds. Move more. Eat more fiber and whole
grains. Don’t smoke. Stick to one or two drinks max.
Report: Sports Drinks and Energy Drinks for Children
and Adolescents: Are They Appropriate?
  Nov
Sports and energy drinks are being marketed to
children and adolescents for a wide variety of inappropriate uses. Sports
drinks and energy drinks are significantly different products, and the terms
should not be used interchangeably. The primary objectives of this clinical
report are to define the ingredients of sports and energy drinks, categorize
the similarities and differences between the products, and discuss misuses and
abuses.
More evidence obesity tied to colon cancer:
 3 Nov
Older adults who are heavy, especially around the
middle, seem to have a higher risk of developing colon cancer than their
thinner peers, a new study finds. They also suggest that exercise could be an
important part of the picture, particularly for women.
Sugary Drinks: A Health Risk for Women | Medical News
and Health Information
 16 Nov
Drinking two or more sugar-sweetened beverages a day
may expand a woman’s waistline and increase her risk of heart disease and
diabetes, according to this study.
Treatment                                                        
New Drug Cuts Blood Supply To Fat
Cells For Weight Loss
 14 Nov
A study explains a new approach to weight loss, a drug called Adipotide, that
basically reduces the blood supply specifically to fat cells, causing them to
simply wither away.

Management – Prevention                                       
 
Your Body Is Ready and Set To Wait Months For Your
Weight To Come Back after Weight Loss
drsharma  8 Nov
The weight loss was associated with significant
reductions in levels of leptin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin, insulin, and
amylin, whereas levels of ghrelin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and
pancreatic polypeptide increased – most of these changes were still clearly
evident at 62 weeks. Given these profound and persistent hormonal changes that
affect hunger, appetite, and metabolism, it should come as no surprise that
maintaining weight loss is so difficult. It certainly seems like the
homeostatic system is happy to wait for the weight to come back – even if this
takes several months or even years.

A synthesis of meta-analyses of school-based
behavioural interventions for controlling and preventing obesity
 – Obesity Reviews –  Nov
Schools are an attractive and popular setting for
implementing interventions for children. There is a growing body of empirical
research exploring the efficacy of school-based obesity prevention programs.
Intervention components in the school setting associated with a significant
reduction of weight in children included long-term interventions with combined
diet and physical activity and a family component. Several reviews also found
gender differences in response to interventions. Of the eight reviews, five
were deemed of high quality and yet limited evidence was found on which to base
recommendations.
Doctors boost patients’ weight loss – NEJM 15 Nov
Physicians, with the aid of their medical assistants
and meal-replacement plans, can help obese people lose and keep off 10 pounds
over two years.  They also had improvements in their HDL (good)
cholesterol, triglycerides and waist circumferences.

Protein key to curbing overeating and preventing
obesity
– 15 Nov
The researchers found subjects who ate a 10 per cent
protein diet consumed 12 per cent more energy over four days than those eating
a 15 per cent protein diet. Moreover, 70 per cent of the increased energy
intake on the lower protein diet was attributed to snacking. When the protein
content was further increased to 25 per cent, however, the researchers observed
no change in behaviour relative to the 15 per cent protein diet. On the fourth
day of the trial, however, there was a greater increase in the hunger score
between one to two hours after the 10 per cent protein breakfast versus the 25
per cent protein breakfast. If you reduce your calorie intake but fail to reach
your protein target you will find it hard to resist hunger pangs.

Finland: Healthy lifestyle reduces death from heart
disease rate by up to 80%
 13 Nov
Regular exercise, a diet rich in fruit and vegetables,
and low in saturated fat are among the best steps we can take to beat heart
disease. Consuming less salt, ideally less than 5g per day, helps keep blood
pressure – a key risk factor for developing stroke – in the normal range.
Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables helps, as does avoiding obesity
(keeping your body mass index below 25) and reducing sugar consumption to
reduce the risk of diabetes. Working more than 11 hours a day raises a person’s
risk of cardiovascular disease compared with someone who works seven or eight
hours. Light to moderate drinking – about one unit of alcohol per day for women
and two for men – seems to offer some protection against coronary heart
disease, most likely because alcohol can improve cholesterol levels and reduce
the tendency of the blood to clot. Heavy or binge drinking, however, can cause
cardiovascular problems, and even light drinking is associated with an
increased risk of other diseases, such as cancer.

 Children – Pediatrics                       
                   
Web-based intervention appears ineffective for
preventing weight gain in adolescents:
7 Nov
A web-based computer-tailored intervention aiming to
increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behavior, and promote healthy
eating among adolescents was not associated with positive long-term outcome
measures, but may have positive short-term effects on eating behaviors,
according to a report published Online First by
Archives of Pediatrics &
Adolescent Medicine

Preventing Childhood Obesity: begin by focussing on
societal norms rather than lifestyle programs
DrSharma 10 Nov
The childhood obesity epidemic is just one symptom of
our way of living. Reversing the epidemic may require that we apply a new
approach to improving child health in the 21st century. One approach is
to make societal changes to enhance human well-being rather than to
prevent a particular symptom, such as childhood obesity. In the process, we may
address obesity and other socially determined health conditions while
preventing new ones from emerging.
Does Youth Sports Prevent Obesity? DrSharma  14 Nov
While their review of 19 studies on this topic showed
that kids participating in sports were indeed more physically active than kids
who did not participate, overall they found no clear relationship between
participation and weight status. While 12 studies did note some (albeit small)
differences in body weight in selected subgroups (but not the entire study
population in these studies), the other 7 studies found no differences in body
weight at all. It appears that both the potential benefits and downsides of
sports as a means to tackling obesity have more to do with the impact of sports
(and sport settings) on caloric intake than expenditure.
At 3.5 Years Of Age Future Obesity May Be Predicted  14 Nov
Researchers found two factors that may explain this:
the mothers’ weight around the time they gave birth and whether the mothers
smoked. These two factors were found to be much more important than the other
criteria that were studied, such as the child’s birth weight. Research adds to
the growing evidence that the perinatal environment has an important influence
on later obesity.

 Nutrition – Diet                                 
                   
Men and heavy people may outpace women and slim people
in eating speed
 9 Nov
Researchers also discovered that people with a higher
body mass index in general ate much faster than those with a lower BMI.
Further Evidence That Eating Slower Reduces Food Intake 11 Nov
Two new studies by researchers at the University of
Rhode Island are providing additional insights into the role that eating rate
plays in the amount of food one consumes. The studies found that men eat
significantly faster than women, heavier people eat faster than slimmer people,
and refined grains are consumed faster than whole grains, among other findings.

 Physical Activity –
Sedentarity                              

City kids
less likely to be active than suburban ones – density matters
28 Oct
Where houses are crammed, yards are small and there’s
more traffic, there may be no place for kids to play,” says Janssen. “Whereas
if you have a quiet cul-de-sac it becomes a playground.

Why
Kids Don’t Walk To School
| Dr. Sharma’s Obesity Notes  24 Nov
The two most commonly raised issues were concerns
about the safety of crossing streets (54%) and the availability of sidewalks
(54%). Additional factors included distance to school (46%), traffic volume
(42%), parental attitudes (27%), traffic speed (27%), neighborhood condition
(24%), and student attitudes (10%).

 Behaviour
– Consumption
                  
              
Medical News: Banning Soda in Schools Ineffective?? – MedPage Today
Although the ban significantly cut down on
student-reported access at school, about 85% of students reported having at
least one soda or other sweet drink in the prior week whether they could get
the beverages at school or not.
Development and validation of an eating norms
inventory. Americans’ lay-beliefs about appropriate eating
: Appetite  Oct
What do American adults believe about what, where,
when, how much, and how often it is appropriate to eat? Such normative beliefs
originate from family and friends through socialization processes, but they are
also influenced by governments, educational institutions, and businesses. Norms
therefore provide an important link between the social environment and
individual attitudes and behaviors.

 Industry –
Marketing
                  
                
    
Everything you need to know about the front of package
label debate
. MT marionnestle: 6 Nov

Obesity Research and Prevention News Review: 10 October 2011

by Paul Boisvert, PhD in collaboration with the Canadian Obesity Network  (CON)  and The Research Chair in Obesity from Université Laval
Follow Obesity News and more news on Twitter

Network
News                                                                 
 .
Archive Obesity Research and Prevention Newsletter Review: 26 Sept 2011

International Symposium 2010 Bariatric/Metabolic Surgery: How it influences
energy balance regulation
IJO  Sep 2011; 35 (Supplement 3s) S1 – S49

Post doctoral Fellowship in Obesity in Université
Laval or University of Alberta: deadline 14 November

Key selected presentations Review from Obesity Society
annual meeting 2011 in Orlando oct 1-5
#obesity2011

Epidemilogy – Evaluation                                
Maternal smoking, gestational weight gain,
breastfeeding, and infant sleep duration: 4 factors predict child’s obesity
4 Oct #obesity2011
Targeting these four modifiable maternal and infant risk factors may make a
large impact on reducing childhood obesity


Etiology – Determinants
                                
Lipid cell Dysfunction Linked To Obesity And Metabolic
Disorders
Nature 26 Sept
The results show that fat cells in overweight people
have a higher capacity for storing fats but a lower capacity for ridding
themselves of them.

Role Of GLP-1 In The Resolution of Diabetes After Gastric
Bypass Surgery
| DrSharma 28 Sept
Some patients undergoing gastric bypass (GB) surgery
experience significantly increased insulin secretion following a meal,
sometimes even resulting in clinically significant hypoglycaemia. Increased
GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion contributes significantly to hyperinsulinism
in GB subjects. Increased secretion of GLP-1 following GB surgery, together
with other mechanisms including secretion of other enteric hormones, quicker
passage of food through the small bowel, reduction in liver fat, and weight loss
in general, may all play a role in the substantial glycemic improvements seen
with GB surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Orexin Hormone Fights White Fat With Brown Fat  4 Oct
Without orexin, mice are permanently programmed to be
obese. With it, brown fat is activated and they burn more calories. The next
steps is in determining how orexin—or a chemical that has the same effect—might
be used in humans to therapeutically prevent or treat obesity.
Cortisol may be one of the factors
causing obesity, hypertension and insulin resistant in shift workers
  6 Oct

Complications                                                     
Men Don’t Have To Be As Fat As Women To Get Type 2
Diabetes
4 Oct
Being overweight is a major risk factor for type 2
diabetes, but this study appears to show that men have to gain less weight than
women to develop the condition. Generally, men without diabetes have more fat
around the abdomen and in the liver than women, who conversely tend to carry a
greater proportion of their body fat under the skin, the so-called
« subcutaneous fat » which is thought to be less risky for type 2
diabetes and other health problems.

Treatment                                                         
Lorcaserin Reduced Weight and Improved Glycemic Control in Patients with
Type 2 Diabetes.
 #Obesity2011  4 Oct
Phase 3 results

Management                                                          
Eating sweets early in pregnancy can mean obese baby – USATODAY.com #Obesity2011 3 Oct
Overweight and obese women who were consuming more
than 20% of their calories from sweets (desserts, candy, soda) had more than
two times the risk of having an overweight or obese baby at birth and at six
months. The key lifestyle factors that helped: weighing themselves daily,
limiting fast food and watching calorie intake.

 Policy – Prevention – Regulations                      
Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies – Institute of Medicine 3 Oct #Obesity2011
The IOM reviewed factors related to overweight and
obesity from birth to age five, with a focus on nutrition, physical activity,
and sedentary behaviour. In this report, the IOM recommends actions that
healthcare professionals, caregivers, and policymakers can take to prevent
obesity in children five and younger.

Denmark taxes fatty foods 2.9$/kg of saturated fat in
a product for figthing fat consumption
. 2 Oct
The tax affects products like cooking oils, milk and
pre-cooked foods like pizzas. The tax is expected to raise about $400m, and cut
saturated fat consumption by close to 10%, and that of butter by 15%.

Tough Sell for Healthy Fare in School Vending Machines – NYTimes.com  4 Oct
The new vending machine sat unnoticed as students rushed past its baby
carrots, yogurt smoothies and hummus to neighbors dispensing Snapple, Doritos,
Goldfish and Cheez-It. The lunch period was nearly over before a potential
customer stopped to check out its offerings. “This is way too healthy for a
snack,” said John Achnitz, 15, a 10th grader. “Kids want healthy stuff like
baked Doritos, but not an apple that they can get at home free.”

 Children-Pediatrics                       
                    
the Alberta Project Promoting active Living & healthy Eating in
Schools (APPLE Schools)
–  28 Sept
Healthy school communities promote wellness and strive
to create environments that foster lifelong health and wellness.

Systematic Review On Sedentary Behaviour & Health
in School-Aged Children
| Obesity Panacea
Blog 27 Sept
Based on this systematic review of 232 studies, sedentary
behaviour (assessed primarily through increased TV viewing) for more than 2
hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased
fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased
academic achievement in school-aged children and youth (5-17 years).
School-Based Physical Activity Program Can Change The
Way Kids Eat,
Exercise – 30 Sept
A new study from the University of Missouri shows Jump
Into Action (JIA), a school-based physical activity program, is effective in
changing unhealthy youth behaviors.
 Nutrition – Diet                                 
                   
Fruits and veggies may prevent bowel cancer but not
fruit juices
: Study 26 Sept
Constant cravings – One in five of us skip breakfast
or lunch, and the more we slip, the worse we feel
Sept 15 those who skipped meals in this
survey also reported more negative symptoms than those who always ate three a
day­—and the more meals skipped, the worse shape they were in.
 Physical Activity-
Sedentarity                              

Physical activity for obese individuals: a systematic
review of effects on chronic disease risk factors
– Katzmarzyk Obesity Res 26 SepThere was great heterogeneity
in responses of risk factors across studies. In many studies it was difficult
to determine the effect of physical activity, independent of changes in body
mass consequent to the intervention. Obese individuals should be encouraged to
undertake physical activity following general recommendations for weight loss
and health. The degree to which physical activity is effective at lowering risk
factor levels among high-risk obese individuals is not known.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of
aerobic vs. resistance exercise training on visceral fat
–Ismail Obesity Res 26 Septaerobic exercise is central for
exercise programmes aimed at reducing VAT, and that aerobic exercise below
current recommendations for overweight/obesity management may be sufficient for
beneficial VAT modification.
Want To Lose Belly Fat? Aerobic Exercise Beats Weights 30 Aug
« Resistance training is great for improving
strength and increasing lean body mass. But if you are overweight, which
two-thirds of the population is, and you want to lose belly fat, aerobic
exercise is the better choice because it burns more calories. » They found
that aerobic training reduces visceral fat and liver fat considerably. Aerobic
training was also found to be better at improving fasting insulin resistance,
compared to doing weights. It also reduced liver enzymes and fasting
triglyceride levels more effectively.
« School-Based Physical Activity Program Can
Change The Way Kids Eat, Exercise
 » – 3
Oct

 Psychology – Mental
Health                                 

Governor Chris Christie’s Weight and the Oval Office:
Viewpoint on Weight and Capacity to do Politics
– NYTimes.com 2 Oct
Chris Christie about his weight: The thinness that I
managed in college didn’t reflect laudable self-control. It reflected bulimia
and laxatives. My borderline obesity in my mid-30s wasn’t a sign of indolence
and drift. Professionally, I was working harder and more reliably than ever.

 Behaviour
– Consumption
                  
               
Top 20 sources of
Calories for Americans
WebMD 26 Sept
#1 Grain-based desserts #2 Breads #3 Chicken #4 Soft
drinks #5 pizza

A Cornell University study says we are three times
more likely to eat the first thing we see at home
26 Sept
if a healthy salad is first in the line of vision, we
are much more likely to have it for dinner than if the ingredients for it are
stored at the back of the fridge behind a pile of fattening ready-meals.
MYTH: Junk Food Costs Cheaper than Healthy Meals Cooked at
Home
– NYTimes.com
In general, despite extensive government subsidies,
hyperprocessed food remains more expensive than food cooked at home. The
alternative to soda is water, and the alternative to junk food is not grass-fed
beef and greens from a trendy farmers’ market, but anything other than junk
food: rice, grains, pasta, beans, fresh vegetables, canned vegetables, frozen
vegetables, meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, bread, peanut butter, a
thousand other things cooked at home — in almost every case a far superior
alternative.

Children’s packed lunches ‘lack fruit and veg’ BBC News – 4 Oct
40% of lunchboxes do not contain any fruit or
vegetables, compared with 10% of school dinners. It said parents should
consider switching to school meals.

What’s for kids’ breakfast? Cereal, sodas, candy, yogurt; 20% skipped
breakfast
; #obesity2011 – USATODAY.com 4 Oct

 Industry –
Marketing
                  
                
     
Restaurants and fast-food outlets will be forced to
list calories on their menus in Australia
| thetelegraph.com.au  27 Sept
NSW will become the nation’s first state to force fast
food chains to reveal their energy counts or face heavy fines and penalties
under the new Fast Choices legislation. The chains will have to display the
average energy content of the foods they sell as well as the average adult
daily energy intake of 2070 Calories. There are about 40 chains, with a total
of about 2700 outlets, that are covered by the law. These include supermarkets
and bakeries, as well as pizza, coffee and juice bar chains that serve
ready-to-eat foods in standard portions with regular sizes and content.

Key messages from Obesity Society annual meeting 2011 in Orlando

Obesity Society’s Annual Scientific Meeting in Orlando Oct 1-5

Here are the key messages and selected presentations I attended or were reported on tweeter and the newspapers.
Other key messages and presentations can be found on twitter at the tag
See TOS final program .
The conference was held at  Marriott World Center, Orlando, FL Oct 1-5.

Behaviour-Psychology
What’s for kids’ breakfast? Cereal, sodas, candy, yogurt; 20% skipped breakfast;  – read USATODAY.com 
80% adolescents underestimate calories at fast food restaurants: 464 cal while they consume 746 cal!  EthanSimsAward
Boutelle about Appetite Awareness Training: resist 20 min and temptations get down 

Snacking
Popkins: snacks account for 26% daily cal 2008; 18% in 1977 from – 1.23 to 2.38 snacks. 
Foster about fast, cheap and easy snacking: snacks taken outside are very low in proteins (5%) and fiber (1g) but ok in sat fat

food environment :
Drewnowski  :
-Residential property values predict obesity rates in women better than education or income!
-There is an 8-fold difference in obesity rates depending on the supermarket chain you shop at.; obese people shop at Albertsons or Safeway (30+%obesity) and not at Whole Foods (4% obesity)
-Proximity to supermarkets was unrelated to obesity rates. People who don’t live in food deserts drive to them to shop!

 S.Kumanyika: Level of education is not necessarily predictive of ability to navigate food environment in low SES neighborhoods 

Nutrition
Joann Manson at key message: more vitamin D does not mean necessarily better
Vitamin D may help prevent some cancers and CVD risks, but research are inconsistent see IOM report

New « SuperFiber » called SAEF for Weight Management  by Gelesis. Sig. outperforms top fibers    RT

Lifestyle intervention in the real world
Yanovski : Implementing efficient intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss cost 1500$/year; group lifestyle 213$!

Weight management
Rena Wing about weight loss maintenance: after 10 years follow-up, if maintaining high physical activity regain 4,5 kg; if decreased, weight regain 9 kg;  more physical activity and more replacement meals and more follow-up sessions mean more weight loss maintenance

Interventions studies and environment
KIm Raine: Healthy Alberta Communities for better look at http://healthyalbertacommunities.com/ 
Oreskovic: Distance to school is the strongest predictor of active transportation; 44% kids walked in 1968, 13% in 2008!!

Weight Linked to Home Address Exposed to Traffic, Pollution, Secondary Smokefrom MedPage Today 

Physiology
D Clegg : Changes in adipose distribution, morphology, and physiology may be key players in increased CV risk postmenopause –  @

Media training :
Key points: Have a key message bottom line and … most important factor: body language, appearance, how you look, before what you say!!

Deabate on Food Industry:
with    @ : Food Industry: Friend or Foe. The great debate’s online!
Porcupine sex analogy: Bottom line, someone usually gets screwed or is afraid of.  debating Food Industry Partnership: it’s all about trust and benefits but risky business for … public health org
during debate on Food Industry Partnership: any big one is in favor for a « balanced » healthy diet or lifestyle
: Educating the public directly, to demand more healthful products is only way to influence food industry.

If food companies use celebrities to sell their products does that make the food, the celebrity or both the « bad » guy?

« Can health organizations really further obesity treatment and prevention by helping to sell food? »

More from food industry itself
ConAgra Foods: Frozen single serve meal is an option for portion-calorie control; but is it an Healthy Choice?
Kraft: hint of salt is more successfull than low sodium in Ritz cookies
« Kraft sells 900 million servings of Kraft food per day. When we think about reach … » Dr. Diane Finegood
« My dream would be to have all macaroni + cheese be whole grain. »!! Richard Black, PhD, VP Nutrition, Kraft Foods Global (Note: great things begin with a dream, as long as you do not dream all your life!)
see blog report from

Industry Self-Regulation for better food choice to kids
Marlene Schwartz:   : children’s cereals advertized xontain 85% more sugar, 65% less fibers 60% more sodium
Is marketing to children has decreased?: NO

Bariatric Surgery
Lap band debate RT

DoctorsofWeightLoss

Duodenal jejunal liner improves DM control in 1 year trial; larger study and longer follow up post removal next steps- de Moura RT

Treatment-Drugs
Arena Pharm: Lorcaserin Reduced Weight and Improved Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. 


Perinatality
Eating sweets early in pregnancy can mean obese baby – read  USATODAY.com
Dr. S. Smith believes peripheral targets will be way of future+combos of central+peripheral targets will be 3rd gen from
Childhood Obesity
Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies – Institute of Medicine 

Physical activity


Connie Diekman  Physical activity impacts chronic disease more than it generates weight loss. 

Sedentarity

Troiano: Sedentarity is time sitting at TV watching, screen time and driving
Hamilton: Exercising coach potato exists!!: Exercise does not prevent from acute metabolic consequence of too much inactivity
Hamilton: Sedentary behaviour (mainly sitting too much) is not the same as too little exercise
Katzmarzyk : In addition of promoting moderate to vigorous P.A. and healthy weight, physicians should discourage sitting and being sedentary for extended periods of time
Katzmarzyk about sedentary lifestyle : people sit 5h a day in average
Katzmarzyk: If no TV viewing, life expectancy at birth increase approx 1,5 year
Katzmarzyk: Dose-response association between sitting time and chronic disease risk and mortality independently of physical activity 

 

Obesity Research and Prevention News Review: 26 September 2011

in collaboration with the Canadian Obesity Network  (CON)  and The Research Chair in Obesity from Université Laval

Follow Obesity News and more news on Twitter

Archive: Obesity Research and Prevention
Newsletter Review: 12 Sept 2011

International Symposium 2010 IJO  Sep 2011; 35 (Supplement 3s) Bariatric/Metabolic Surgery: How it influences energy balance regulation: S1 – S49

Canada’s first research chair in
bariatric and metabolic surgery at Universite Laval
19 Sept
The chair’s several goals will include optimizing
management practices for patients awaiting bariatric surgery, improving
post-operative monitoring, and developing minimally invasive therapeutic
interventions for those suffering from severe obesity. The senior chairholder
will be Université Laval research professor André Tchernof, an expert in the
field of molecular endocrinology. He will be assisted by IUCPQ surgeon and
clinician Dr. Fady Moustarah.

 Epidemiology-
Evaluation                             
Is ‘Food Addiction’ a Subtype of
Obesity
?  A Sharma 14 Sept
In a paper just published in Appetite, Caroline Davis and colleagues from Toronto’s York
University provide evidence suggesting that ‘food addiction’ (FA) may be a
valid clinical sub-phenotype of obesity that may possess different
vulnerabilities to environmental risk factors.

Belly Fat’ Linked to Development of
Asthma
26 sept
Obese waist circumference but normal BMI? You’re 44%
more likely to have asthma. Add obesity by BMI & it jumps to 81%.

Etiology – Determinants
                                
White to BAT Fat Phenotypic Switch
Induced by Genetic and Social Environment Activation of Hypothalamic-Adipocyte
Axis
14 Sept
 Living in an enriched environment with complex
physical and social stimulation leads to improved cognitive and metabolic
health. In white fat, enrichment induced the upregulation of the brown fat cell
fate determining gene Prdm16, brown fat-specific markers, and genes involved in
thermogenesis and
β-adrenergic signaling.

Exercise Can Produce Healthy Chatter
Between Bone, Fat And Pancreatic Cells
22 Sept
Cells in bone, fat and the pancreas appear to be
talking to each other and one thing they likely are saying is, « Get
moving. » Blood levels of the hormone osteocalcin, made by bone-producing
osteoblasts, might be a good indicator of how things are going in all three
areas. The idea is that bones can possibly sense environmental stimuli such as
being physically active or sedentary and dictate energy regulation accordingly
Deadly Link Between High Salt Intake And
Obesity May Be Explained By Abnormal Activation Of A Protein
 21 Sept
high dietary salt intake and obesity work together to
trigger an abnormal activation of a cellular protein called Rac1. hen obese
« salt-sensitive » rats were fed a high-salt diet, the team found that
Rac1 activated the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) on the rats’ kidney cells. Both
of these substances promote the reabsorption of salt, which causes the body to
retain fluid and results in high blood pressure.
Do
you eat when you’re stressed? This new study knows why
– The Globe and Mail August
A Canadian study has pinpointed how stress can
temporarily rewire the nerve cells in the brain to ramp up hunger pangs.
Complications                                                     
Canadian MDs consider denying
fertility treatments to obese women
– The Globe and Mail 21 Sept
Some studies find obese women  with BMI>35
face higher risks of medical complications while trying to become pregnant
through in-vitro fertilization (IVF). The science is not certain and some
believe a ban would be tantamount to discrimination, yet a growing number of
fertility doctors worldwide already bar treatment based on a woman’s Body Mass
Index.

Should
obese women be denied fertility treatments in Canada?
– thestar.com with comments by YoniFreedhoff 21 Sept
Risky and ineffective? Or discrimination?
Treatment                                                      
Compounds that stimulate
thermogenesis in obesity management: from pharma to functional food
Dulloo -Obesity Reviews Sept
The concept of managing obesity through the
stimulation of thermogenesis is currently a focus of considerable attention by
the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and functional food industries. Compounds or
combination of compounds with thermogenic and fat-oxidizing potentials are
those that possess both sympathomimetic stimulatory activity and acetyl-coA
carboxylase inhibitory property, and are capable of targeting both skeletal
muscle and brown adipose tissue. The thermogenic potentials of products so far
tested in humans range from marginal to modest, i.e. 2–5% above daily energy
expenditure.

Promising New Obesity Drug Contrave® Looks Set
For FDA Approval 
 22
Sept
A promising new drug for treating Obesity known as
Contrave® developed by Orexigen Therapuetics, appears to have moved into the
final states of FDA review, clearing the way for probable approval. Contrave®
is a combination of naltrexone HCl and bupropion HCl that was studied for
treatment of obese people with a benchmark of losing and maintaining a 5%
weight loss.

Management                                                          
How To Discuss Weight With Your
Patient
report from colleague about
counseling DrSharma 16 Sept
Based on a systematic search of the literature on this
topic, it is clear that patients describe a need for empathy, nonjudgmental
interactions, and specific personalized recommendations. This is actually rule
1 of 
10 tips for
family docs
, and if nothing
else, this is the only rule that all health professionals should adhere to –
always!

Why Even Resolute Dieters Often Fail – NYTimes.com  20 Sept
If you’ve been trying for years to lose unwanted
pounds and keep them off, unrealistic goals may be the reason you’ve failed. It
turns out that a long-used rule of weight loss — reduce 3,500 calories (or burn
an extra 3,500) to lose one pound of body fat — may be incorrect and can
ultimately doom determined dieters.

Fat burners: nutrition supplements
that increase fat metabolism
– Obesity Reviews  22 Sept
The term ‘fat burner’ is used to describe nutrition
supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy
expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat
oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote
fat metabolism. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve
fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine,
carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and
fucoxanthin. Caffeine and green tea are the only compounds that have data to
back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties

Attacking the Obesity Epidemic by
First Figuring Out Its Cause
New York Times 12 Sept
The obvious could be not so obvious indeed

The 5 A’s Approach To Obesity
Counseling
 A
Sharma  19 Sept
a framework for behavioural counselling known as the 5
A’s (ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange). An adaptation of the 5 A’s for
obese patients includes assessment of patient health risk, assessment of
current behavior and readiness to change, advising the patient to change
specific behaviors, agreeing about the behaviors and collaboratively setting
goals, assisting patients in addressing barriers and securing support, and
arranging for follow-up

 Policy – Prevention –
Regulations                      
USDA Rolls Out First Themed MyPlate
Healthy Eating Message
: 13 Sept
Make Half Your Plate Fruits and Vegetables

Policies that promote healthy eating
could cut heart disease deaths by half, UK study finds
20 Sept
The study identifies six foods which make could a
significant improvement to cardiovascular disease rate. Researchers estimate
that eating more fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts (in place of starch),
vegetable oils (in place of animal fats) and fish and seafood in the diet it
would result in 9.2million fewer deaths globally. Likewise, limiting our intake
of salt and industrial trans fats would have a positive effect on CVD rates and
could save 2.6 million lives globally.
UN Expert Calls for Regulations on
Unhealthy Foods
 17 Sept
The UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food has
called for counter-efforts to the promotion of unhealthy, processed foods, the
advertising of which especially impacts children.

Conflicts
of interest and the UN high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases
: The Lancet
CMAJ: Canada
instrumental in watering down elements of noncommunicable diseases plan

cspi
Critics say that Canada was instrumental in pressing
for the exclusion of a pledge to support universal health care, in removing a
passage that would have limited the impact that food and alcohol corporations
have on public health policies, and in not addressing trade-related barriers to
global health.

 Children-Pediatrics                       
                      
Special report on Childhood Obesity CON Conduit Fall 2011

What’s really driving the childhood
obesity epidemic
? Sept
Our environment has undergone dramatic change in recent years, but why
aren’t all children equally susceptible to the weight-promoting lifestyle of
the 21st century?
 

Obese 8- and 9-year-olds are more likely to suffer socially and
emotionally than their normal-weight peers, a new study finds.
How to Talk About Weight With Your
Child
 WebMD: 19 Sept
« Saying ‘We need to talk about your weight,’ puts
a lot of pressure on the kid. Instead, parents should talk about healthy eating
and exercise habits. But this shouldn’t be a one-time, big talk. It should be
an ongoing conversation, even if your child is not overweight.
The role of parents in
pre-adolescent and adolescent overweight and obesity treatment
– Obesity Reviews  22 Sept
The study aims to describe clinical recommendations
(i) on the role of parents in both pre-adolescent and adolescent overweight and
obesity treatment; (ii) to health professionals on how to involve parents in
paediatric overweight and obesity treatment
Clinician-Parent Collaboration to
Optimize Pediatric Weight Management
DrSharma Obesity Notes 23
Sept
Current approaches to managing childhood obesity
recommend family-centred-care (FCC). Effective collaboration between clinicians
and parents which include a positive therapeutic relationship, negotiation of
health care delivery, and regular monitoring and evaluation, emphasizes the
importance of tailoring health services to families’ needs, respect parents as
experts, and identify clinician responsiveness as pivotal to partnerships with
families.

 Nutrition –
Diet                                 
                   
Slides: Global
dimensions of sugary beverages in programmatic and policy solutions
by Barry Popkin 22 Sept

Trying to cut calories? Up the
protein first
– Leslie Beck The
Globe and Mail 16 August

 Physical Activity-
Sedentarity                              
The neurocognitive connection between
physical activity and eating behaviour
– Joseph – Obesity Reviews – 22 Sept
This impulsive eating drive may be counteracted by
physical activity due to its enhancement of neurocognitive resources for
executive functions and goal-oriented behaviour. By enhancing the resources
that facilitate ‘top-down’ inhibitory control, increased physical activity may
help compensate and suppress the hedonic drive to over-eat. Understanding how
physical activity and eating behaviours interact on a neurocognitive level may
help to maintain a healthy lifestyle in an obesogenic environment.

 Behaviour
– Consumption
                  
            
Canadians consume 26 teaspoons of
sugar daily: StatsCan
 22 Sept
That amounts to 110 grams a day and accounts for 21.4
per cent of Canadians’ overall calorie intake. The total includes sugar that
occurs naturally in food such as milk and fruit, as well as sugar that is
added, the latter of which tends to be less nutritious. 35 per cent — of
Canadians’ sugar intake was from foods outside the categories of grains, fruits
and vegetables, meat products and milk products. This « other » food
category, which includes things such as candy and soft drinks, is where added
sugar is most likely to be found, Statistics Canada said.

A good night’s sleep may reduce risk
of type 2 diabetes in obese teens
 20 Sept
to keep glucose levels stable, the optimal amount of
sleep for teenagers is 7.5 to 8.5 hours per night.

Obesity Research and Prevention News Review: 12 September 2011

in collaboration with the Canadian Obesity Network  (CON)  and The Research Chair in Obesity from Université Laval

Follow Obesity News and more news on Twitter

ARCHIVE: Obesity Research and Prevention Newsletter Review: Vol
9 no 21: 29 August 2011

Be a grad student co-chair of a symposium @ CSEP in
Quebec City.
Check the link for more
details  deadline 16 Sept
Alberta embarks on five-year anti-obesity strategy  7 Sept
Plan includes prevention, doctor training and research
into causes

 

 Epidemiology-
Evaluation                               
Treating Obesity In People With Prediabetes Could Save
Billions
 A Sharma  12 Sept  enrolling overweight and obese pre-diabetic US adults aged 60–64 into a
proven, community-based weight loss program nationwide could save Medicare
$1.8–$2.3 billion over the following ten years.

Etiology – Determinants
                                   

Complications                                                     
Lifetime ‘Dose’ Of
Excess Weight Linked To Risk Of Diabetes, According To U-M Study
7 Sept
Not only the amount of excess weight that you carry,
but also the number of years for which you carry it, dramatically increase your
risk of diabetes

ABC questioning on David Allison’s conflicts of
interest as the reason was he insistly refutes meta-analysis studies showing
health effects of sodas
ABC  7 sept
Treatment                                                        
Physician referral to Weight Watchers is more than
twice as effective as standard care
: The Lancet  8 Sept 
Comments: Yes but for whom? by A Sharma
61% of patients in the Weight Watchers group finished
the study having lost at least 5% of their body(−5•06 kg vs. −2•25 kg) weight (32% did so in the standard care group). They
were also more than three times as likely to lose 10% or more of their initial
weight.

Management                                                          
No Cure For
Diabetes, But Lifestyle Changes Can Be The Difference
 6 Sept
diabetes risk can be reduced by 31% for men and 39% for women for each
positive lifestyle change, such as quitting smoking or regularly exercising.
People who manage to make improvements in all five risk areas may be able to
reduce their risk by about 80%

 Policy – Prevention –
Regulations                      
To Curb Worldwide Obesity Epidemic, Government-Led Efforts Targeting
Eating Habits Of Children Needed
 26
August
 Children-Pediatrics                       
                      
Healthy Eating And Physical Activity Among Preschoolers Could Be
Promoted By Child-Care Facilities
31 August
Early prevention is considered to be
the most promising strategy for reducing obesity and the many serious health
conditions. Eating and physical activity habits for a lifetime can develop at
an early age.
Paying For Pediatric Obesity Services Now Can Save
Money Later
 7 Sept  Medical News
Today
For morbidly obese children, access to
multidisciplinary services can lead to successful outcomes. But because
clinicians lack a universal set of guidelines to follow, health insurers and
hospitals often evaluate insurance coverage for obesity services on a
case-by-case basis. 

Expert Committee Recommendations: Prevention,
Assessment, and Treatment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity
6 Sept  Pediatrics
Developing Criteria for Pediatric/Adolescent Bariatric
Surgery Programs
6 Sept  Pediatrics
Recommendations for Treatment of Child and Adolescent
Overweight and Obesity
 6 Sept 
Pediatrics
Nutrition –
Diet                                 
                   
Low to moderate SSB
consumption impairs glucose and lipid metabolism and promotes inflammation in
healthy young men
.  6 Sept
 Physical Activity-
Sedentarity                              
  Psychology – Mental
Health                                 
Food Fanatics: Are Sugar, Fat Addictive? | Video – ABC News  7 Sept
Brain Scans Show
Food Is Like Drugs for Some
| Video – ABC
News   7 Sept

Behaviour
– Consumption
                  
              
Habit Makes Bad
Food Too Easy To Swallow
4 Sept
Do you always get popcorn at the movies? Or snack
while you’re on the couch watching television? A new paper by USC researchers
reveals why bad eating habits persist even when the food we’re eating doesn’t
taste good.

 Industry –
Marketing
                  
                
    
McDonald’s New Menu
Includes Calorie Information, UK
7 Sept
Fast food giants, pizza chains and coffee shops should
publish nutrition details
 5 Sept
If calorie-labelling cannot be achieved on a voluntary
basis, we want the Government to make it a legal requirement.’ Evidence from
New York suggests people have changed their eating habits thanks to the rules.
At McDonald’s, the average calorie count of a lunchtime purchase has come down
from 829 to 785, and at KFC it has dropped from 927 to 850.

Obesity Research and Prevention News Review: 29 August 2011

in collaboration with the Canadian Obesity Network  (CON)  and The Research Chair in Obesity from Université Laval

Follow Obesity News and more news on Twitter

Obesity Research and Prevention Newsletter Review: Vol 9 no 20: 15 August 2011

 Epidemiology-Evaluation                                                       
4 Lifestyle Factors (no smoke, eat healthily, exercise regularly, and alcohol moderately) Tied To Longer, Healthier Life Don’t smoke, eat healthily, exercise regularly, and go easy on the alcohol, and you are likely not only to have fewer chronic health problems, but also to live longer, according to a new study from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 
Obesity Costing States Billion in Yearly Medical Expenses –  26 August
In nine states, obesity already accounts for 10 percent or more of the state’s annual medical expenses, according to researchers from RTI International, Duke University and the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK : The Lancet 26 August
trends project 65 million more obese adults in the USA and 11 million more obese adults in the UK by 2030, consequently accruing an additional 6—8·5 million cases of diabetes, 5·7—7·3 million cases of heart disease and stroke, 492 000—669 000 additional cases of cancer, and 26—55 million quality-adjusted life years forgone for USA and UK combined.

Studies: 1)For Longer Life, Exercise 15 Minutes A Day And 2) Cut TV Hours 16 August

Etiology – Determinants -Environment       
Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight : The Lancet 26 August
mathematical modelling approach to adult human metabolism that simulates energy expenditure adaptations during weight loss. Also a web-based simulator for prediction of weight change dynamics. The average increase of energy intake needed to sustain the increased weight (the maintenance energy gap) has amounted to about 0·9 MJ per day

The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments : The Lancet  26 August
In low-income countries, obesity mostly affects middle-aged adults (especially women) from wealthy, urban environments; whereas in high-income countries it affects both sexes and all ages, but is disproportionately greater in disadvantaged groups. Within populations, the interactions between environmental and individual factors, including genetic makeup, explain variability in body size between individuals.
Complications                                                                 
Slide kit: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in relation to diabetes and cardiovascular disease  MyHealthyWaist 16 August

Obesity Research and Prevention News Review : August 15, 2011

in collaboration with the Canadian Obesity Network  (CON)  and The Research Chair in Obesity from Université Laval

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Obesity Research and Prevention Newsletter Review: Vol 9 no 19: 1 August 2011

 Epidemiology- Evaluation                                                       
Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) Evaluation Tool lets health providers better predict than BMI Classification which obese patients are at risk for death:  15 August …and which ones don’t need to lose weight at all. The importance of EOSS is that it puts an emphasis on individualized treatment needs depending on how at-risk the patient is, not how much they weigh.
South Asians at higher risk of obesity-related health problems  29 July
Etiology – Determinants                                                      
New Link Found Between Obesity And Insulin Resistance by examining the levels of proteins in the livers: 3 August
Scientists at Joslin Diabetes Center now have uncovered a new way in which obesity wreaks its havoc, by altering the production of proteins that affect how other proteins are spliced together. In the case of these proteins whose production drops in the livers of obese people, this process changes the function of other proteins that can cause excess fat to be made in the liver.
Why Diets Don’t Work: Starved Brain Cells Eat Themselves: 3 August
When we don’t eat, hunger-inducing neurons in the brain start eating bits of themselves. That act of self-cannibalism turns up a hunger signal involving AGrP and MSH to prompt eating.
Complications                                                                 
Mechanisms linking obesity to hypertension – Obesity Reviews – : 15 August
Overweight and obesity are associated with adipose tissue dysfunction, characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and marked changes in secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. This results in chronic vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic overdrive, eventually leading to hypertension.
Obesity – Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue Gene Expression of Serum Adipokines That Predict Type 2 Diabetes:
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is predicted by central obesity and circulating adipokines regulating inflammation. Increased production of these proinflammatory molecules by VAT may explain the links observed between visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes risk. #bestof2010
Obesity – Interaction of Leptin and Amylin in the Long-term Maintenance of Weight Loss in Diet-induced Obese Rats: combined amylin + leptin agonism elicits synergistic weight loss in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Maintenance of amylin + leptin–mediated weight loss requires continued treatment with both agonists, and is accompanied by sustained improvements in body composition, and indices of lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. #bestof2010
NEW STUDY: Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men. 4 AugustSugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with a significantly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas the association between artificially sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes was largely explained by health status, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, and body mass index.

Treatment                                                          
Bariatric Surgery Reduces Response to Food Cues?  A Sharma 8 August
patients tell you how their previous obsession and desire to eat (many liken this to a addiction) before surgery, has been replaced with a surprising disinterest, not to say, indifference to foods that they previously found most tempting and rewarding. Following surgery, there was a distinct decrease in the activation of key areas of the brain known to be involved in the mesolimbic reward pathways in response to high-caloric highly palatable food cues (pepperoni pizza, fudge sundae).

Obesity Treatment – FDA Approves Phentermine Resin Extended-Release Capsules:  3 August
Phentermine Resin Extended-Release Capsules, 15 mg and 30 mg will be sold through bariatric clinics and are the therapeutic equivalent to the reference listed drug, Ionamin® Capsules, 15 mg and 30 mg, of UCB, Inc. Phentermine Resin will be used to manage exogenous obesity as a short-term (a few weeks) associate in the treatment of weight reduction.
Management                                                          
STUDY: Dieters are more prone to future weight gain apparently independently of genetic factors @DrSharma 11 August
 
Policy – Prevention – Regulations                                
Is the Government Setting Us Up to Make Bad Food Choices?  11 August
It costs more to eat healthy, and government is partially to blame partly because of distribution of subventions.
Foreign Affairs pushed for looser rules on caffeinated drinks set up by Health Canada last year: The Gazette 11 August
It came up “as a surprise” from nowhere suddenly in March 2010 because it was in contradiction with the priority to decrease consumption of soft drinks. Now we know the political reasons.
Healthy Eating Costs Much More In America:  10 August
Consumers spend an extra $380/year – and that is just for getting enough potassium
CSPI urges revision of ‘understated’ serving size information: CSPI 3 August
CSPI claims that current serving sizes as indicated on food packages do not always reflect what Americans actually eat, meaning that labels can understate the amount of sugar, sodium, saturated fat or the number of calories that are likely to be consumed in one sitting.
 Children-Pediatrics                                                    
Report: Food Environments Near Home and School Related to Consumption of Soda and Fast Food:  12 August
Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments
Obesity – The Role of Parental Motivation in Family-Based Treatment for Childhood Obesity: 2011
The results underscore the importance of addressing parental motivation, specifically parental confidence for changing lifestyle related behaviors, early in the treatment process. Doing so may reduce treatment dropout and enhance treatment outcome.
 Nutrition – Diet                                                        
Obesity – Dietary Whey Protein Decreases Food Intake and Body Fat in Rats: 2011
High-protein content fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas Whey protein fed rats show decreased food intake
Salt Reduction Measures Must Be Taken By Health Policy Makers, Say Experts 12 August
8.5 million deaths over 10 yrs could be averted in 23 high burden countries if salt intake is reduced by 15%
 Physical Activity- Sedentarity                                
Too Much Sitting is Not the Same as Too Little Physical Activity: by @TravisSaunders 15 August
the amount of sedentary behaviour you engage in has a large impact on health, regardless of your level of physical activity

Even small amounts of exercise can result in major health benefits. 2 August
just 75 minutes a week, half the government’s recommendation, which amounts to an easy 15-minute walk each weekday — offered significant benefit compared to those who do not exercise at all. But more brings more benefits

 Psychology – Mental Health                                   
What are some emotions that you eat around? 29 July
We have to make choices around food all the time + those eating choices are almost always connected to a ‘feeling’ that we don’t want to feel, but instead, we eat through it. What are some emotions that you eat around? Watch the clip to hear what others had to say!
Comfort eating helps stave off the blues: study 2 August
A sweet tooth might not be the only reason why we reach for ice cream and cake in times of stress. Eating fat seems to make us less vulnerable to sad emotions
 Behaviour – Consumption                                        
Mindless Eating Can Make You Fat, But It Can Also Make You Healthy: 10 August
The secret is to change your environment so it works for you rather than against you. Simple strategies are far more likely to succeed than willpower alone. It’s easier to change your environment than to change your mind.
The Problem With Non Uniform Serving Sizes on the Nutritional Fact Table – NYTimes.com: 2 August
According to its label, a pint of Häagen-Dazs ice cream contains four servings. But when was the last time you measured out a fourth of a container of Cookies & Cream, then put the rest away for another day?
Happy Meals? The Nutritional Value Of What Kids Actually Eat At A Fast Food Restaurant 4 August
We found that families perceived fast-food restaurants as easy and cheap, and many were using fast food as a reward for their children
Importance of Family Meals – Watch WebMD Video: 3 August
only 1/3 14 year-old’s regularly have dinner with their families
 Industry – Marketing                                          
EATWELL results: how can private sector marketing techniques help improve public health? (EUFIC):  12 August
But what can we learn from the private sector, which has considerable experience with tools designed to influence consumer food choice? Part of the EATWELL project was to carry out an investigation of private sector marketing techniques to consider whether these may be applicable to public efforts to promote healthier eating.

Study: Industry Has Found Sneaky Way to Keep Advertising Junk Food to Kids: 11 August
Ads down, but replaced with product placement. The study comes at a rotten time for food and beverage advertisers, which are in a heated battle over the federal government’s new proposed voluntary guidelines on marketing to children, which, if followed, would affect every marketing tactic from advertising to packaging to sponsorships.