Obesity Research and Prevention News Review: 29 August 2011

in collaboration with the Canadian Obesity Network  (CON)  and The Research Chair in Obesity from Université Laval

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Obesity Research and Prevention Newsletter Review: Vol 9 no 20: 15 August 2011

 Epidemiology-Evaluation                                                       
4 Lifestyle Factors (no smoke, eat healthily, exercise regularly, and alcohol moderately) Tied To Longer, Healthier Life Don’t smoke, eat healthily, exercise regularly, and go easy on the alcohol, and you are likely not only to have fewer chronic health problems, but also to live longer, according to a new study from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 
Obesity Costing States Billion in Yearly Medical Expenses –  26 August
In nine states, obesity already accounts for 10 percent or more of the state’s annual medical expenses, according to researchers from RTI International, Duke University and the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK : The Lancet 26 August
trends project 65 million more obese adults in the USA and 11 million more obese adults in the UK by 2030, consequently accruing an additional 6—8·5 million cases of diabetes, 5·7—7·3 million cases of heart disease and stroke, 492 000—669 000 additional cases of cancer, and 26—55 million quality-adjusted life years forgone for USA and UK combined.

Studies: 1)For Longer Life, Exercise 15 Minutes A Day And 2) Cut TV Hours 16 August

Etiology – Determinants -Environment       
Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight : The Lancet 26 August
mathematical modelling approach to adult human metabolism that simulates energy expenditure adaptations during weight loss. Also a web-based simulator for prediction of weight change dynamics. The average increase of energy intake needed to sustain the increased weight (the maintenance energy gap) has amounted to about 0·9 MJ per day

The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments : The Lancet  26 August
In low-income countries, obesity mostly affects middle-aged adults (especially women) from wealthy, urban environments; whereas in high-income countries it affects both sexes and all ages, but is disproportionately greater in disadvantaged groups. Within populations, the interactions between environmental and individual factors, including genetic makeup, explain variability in body size between individuals.
Complications                                                                 
Slide kit: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in relation to diabetes and cardiovascular disease  MyHealthyWaist 16 August

Obesity Research and Prevention News Review : August 15, 2011

in collaboration with the Canadian Obesity Network  (CON)  and The Research Chair in Obesity from Université Laval

Follow Obesity News and more news on Twitter

Obesity Research and Prevention Newsletter Review: Vol 9 no 19: 1 August 2011

 Epidemiology- Evaluation                                                       
Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) Evaluation Tool lets health providers better predict than BMI Classification which obese patients are at risk for death:  15 August …and which ones don’t need to lose weight at all. The importance of EOSS is that it puts an emphasis on individualized treatment needs depending on how at-risk the patient is, not how much they weigh.
South Asians at higher risk of obesity-related health problems  29 July
Etiology – Determinants                                                      
New Link Found Between Obesity And Insulin Resistance by examining the levels of proteins in the livers: 3 August
Scientists at Joslin Diabetes Center now have uncovered a new way in which obesity wreaks its havoc, by altering the production of proteins that affect how other proteins are spliced together. In the case of these proteins whose production drops in the livers of obese people, this process changes the function of other proteins that can cause excess fat to be made in the liver.
Why Diets Don’t Work: Starved Brain Cells Eat Themselves: 3 August
When we don’t eat, hunger-inducing neurons in the brain start eating bits of themselves. That act of self-cannibalism turns up a hunger signal involving AGrP and MSH to prompt eating.
Complications                                                                 
Mechanisms linking obesity to hypertension – Obesity Reviews – : 15 August
Overweight and obesity are associated with adipose tissue dysfunction, characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and marked changes in secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. This results in chronic vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic overdrive, eventually leading to hypertension.
Obesity – Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue Gene Expression of Serum Adipokines That Predict Type 2 Diabetes:
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is predicted by central obesity and circulating adipokines regulating inflammation. Increased production of these proinflammatory molecules by VAT may explain the links observed between visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes risk. #bestof2010
Obesity – Interaction of Leptin and Amylin in the Long-term Maintenance of Weight Loss in Diet-induced Obese Rats: combined amylin + leptin agonism elicits synergistic weight loss in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Maintenance of amylin + leptin–mediated weight loss requires continued treatment with both agonists, and is accompanied by sustained improvements in body composition, and indices of lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. #bestof2010
NEW STUDY: Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men. 4 AugustSugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with a significantly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas the association between artificially sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes was largely explained by health status, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, and body mass index.

Treatment                                                          
Bariatric Surgery Reduces Response to Food Cues?  A Sharma 8 August
patients tell you how their previous obsession and desire to eat (many liken this to a addiction) before surgery, has been replaced with a surprising disinterest, not to say, indifference to foods that they previously found most tempting and rewarding. Following surgery, there was a distinct decrease in the activation of key areas of the brain known to be involved in the mesolimbic reward pathways in response to high-caloric highly palatable food cues (pepperoni pizza, fudge sundae).

Obesity Treatment – FDA Approves Phentermine Resin Extended-Release Capsules:  3 August
Phentermine Resin Extended-Release Capsules, 15 mg and 30 mg will be sold through bariatric clinics and are the therapeutic equivalent to the reference listed drug, Ionamin® Capsules, 15 mg and 30 mg, of UCB, Inc. Phentermine Resin will be used to manage exogenous obesity as a short-term (a few weeks) associate in the treatment of weight reduction.
Management                                                          
STUDY: Dieters are more prone to future weight gain apparently independently of genetic factors @DrSharma 11 August
 
Policy – Prevention – Regulations                                
Is the Government Setting Us Up to Make Bad Food Choices?  11 August
It costs more to eat healthy, and government is partially to blame partly because of distribution of subventions.
Foreign Affairs pushed for looser rules on caffeinated drinks set up by Health Canada last year: The Gazette 11 August
It came up “as a surprise” from nowhere suddenly in March 2010 because it was in contradiction with the priority to decrease consumption of soft drinks. Now we know the political reasons.
Healthy Eating Costs Much More In America:  10 August
Consumers spend an extra $380/year – and that is just for getting enough potassium
CSPI urges revision of ‘understated’ serving size information: CSPI 3 August
CSPI claims that current serving sizes as indicated on food packages do not always reflect what Americans actually eat, meaning that labels can understate the amount of sugar, sodium, saturated fat or the number of calories that are likely to be consumed in one sitting.
 Children-Pediatrics                                                    
Report: Food Environments Near Home and School Related to Consumption of Soda and Fast Food:  12 August
Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments
Obesity – The Role of Parental Motivation in Family-Based Treatment for Childhood Obesity: 2011
The results underscore the importance of addressing parental motivation, specifically parental confidence for changing lifestyle related behaviors, early in the treatment process. Doing so may reduce treatment dropout and enhance treatment outcome.
 Nutrition – Diet                                                        
Obesity – Dietary Whey Protein Decreases Food Intake and Body Fat in Rats: 2011
High-protein content fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas Whey protein fed rats show decreased food intake
Salt Reduction Measures Must Be Taken By Health Policy Makers, Say Experts 12 August
8.5 million deaths over 10 yrs could be averted in 23 high burden countries if salt intake is reduced by 15%
 Physical Activity- Sedentarity                                
Too Much Sitting is Not the Same as Too Little Physical Activity: by @TravisSaunders 15 August
the amount of sedentary behaviour you engage in has a large impact on health, regardless of your level of physical activity

Even small amounts of exercise can result in major health benefits. 2 August
just 75 minutes a week, half the government’s recommendation, which amounts to an easy 15-minute walk each weekday — offered significant benefit compared to those who do not exercise at all. But more brings more benefits

 Psychology – Mental Health                                   
What are some emotions that you eat around? 29 July
We have to make choices around food all the time + those eating choices are almost always connected to a ‘feeling’ that we don’t want to feel, but instead, we eat through it. What are some emotions that you eat around? Watch the clip to hear what others had to say!
Comfort eating helps stave off the blues: study 2 August
A sweet tooth might not be the only reason why we reach for ice cream and cake in times of stress. Eating fat seems to make us less vulnerable to sad emotions
 Behaviour – Consumption                                        
Mindless Eating Can Make You Fat, But It Can Also Make You Healthy: 10 August
The secret is to change your environment so it works for you rather than against you. Simple strategies are far more likely to succeed than willpower alone. It’s easier to change your environment than to change your mind.
The Problem With Non Uniform Serving Sizes on the Nutritional Fact Table – NYTimes.com: 2 August
According to its label, a pint of Häagen-Dazs ice cream contains four servings. But when was the last time you measured out a fourth of a container of Cookies & Cream, then put the rest away for another day?
Happy Meals? The Nutritional Value Of What Kids Actually Eat At A Fast Food Restaurant 4 August
We found that families perceived fast-food restaurants as easy and cheap, and many were using fast food as a reward for their children
Importance of Family Meals – Watch WebMD Video: 3 August
only 1/3 14 year-old’s regularly have dinner with their families
 Industry – Marketing                                          
EATWELL results: how can private sector marketing techniques help improve public health? (EUFIC):  12 August
But what can we learn from the private sector, which has considerable experience with tools designed to influence consumer food choice? Part of the EATWELL project was to carry out an investigation of private sector marketing techniques to consider whether these may be applicable to public efforts to promote healthier eating.

Study: Industry Has Found Sneaky Way to Keep Advertising Junk Food to Kids: 11 August
Ads down, but replaced with product placement. The study comes at a rotten time for food and beverage advertisers, which are in a heated battle over the federal government’s new proposed voluntary guidelines on marketing to children, which, if followed, would affect every marketing tactic from advertising to packaging to sponsorships.

Obesity Research and Prevention News Review: 1 August 2011

in collaboration with the Canadian Obesity Network  (CON)  and The Research Chair in Obesity from Université Laval

Follow Obesity News and more news on Twitter

Network News                                                                  .
6th Annual Canadian
Obesity Network Summer Boot Camp 17 July
 Epidemiology- Evaluation                                                      
Obesity Is Baby Boomers’ Main Health Problem  19 July
Etiology – Determinants                                                      
VIDEO: Lustig argues that fructose (too much) and fiber (not enough) are rooths of obesity epidemic through insulin: 6 July
VIDEO: Adipose tissue, adiponectin, leptin and ASP 20 July
Interview with Katherine Cianflone, Adipose tissue session, at the Obesity Boot Camp 2011
Variations in genes related to body fatness are more important and lead to greater weight gain under the influence of an obesity-promoting environment.
A defect of the glucose-sensing pathway contributes to the development of obesity. The correction of this defect can normalize the whole body energy balance and treat obesity
The effect of high ghrelin levels mimics fasting 28 July
When you don’t get enough sleep, ghrelin levels remain higher, rising sensibly hunger
Complications                                                                 
VIDEO: Link between visceral fat, triglycerides, and CVD
Interview with André Tchernoff , Obesity Complications Session at the Obesity Boot Camp 2011
Slide kit: The concept of cardiometabolic risk. Cardiometabolic Chair19 July
Sweetened Drinks Boost Heart Disease Risk – August 1
While beverages sweetened with fructose or high-fructose corn syrup accounted for at least a quarter of a person’s daily calories over two weeks, there were significant increases in triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations
Treatment                                                         
VIDEO: The 4 A’s Etiological Framework about Food Choice Complexity 21 July
Interview with Rhonda Bell, Nutrition Session at the Obesity Boot Camp 2011
after bypass surgery, patients become hungry for good food and avoid junk food not because they have to, but because they just don’t like it any more. If we can find out why this happens, we might be able to help people to eat more healthily without much effort
Treating the Cause, Not the Illness – 29 July
NY Times on determinants of health
Management                                                          
VIDEO: Global Approach to Weight Control Management 22 July
Interview on global approaches to weight control with Angelo Tremblay on Physical activity, nutrition and behaviour session  at the Obesity Boot Camp 2011
Doctors weight bias affects patient care 16 July

 Policy – Prevention – Regulations                                
Kids, Media, Obesity  11 July
Child’s media use may be linked to body weight — not only because they don’t get as much exercise if they’re watching TV and using other media, but also due to other issues related to media exposure

How Do Food Prices Affect Childhood Obesity? 6 July
The Economic Research Service of the USDA decided to rigorously study the effects of food prices on weight gain in children. Higher prices For sugary drinks decreased consumption and as a result lowered BMI (body mass index). Conversely, cheaper fruits and veggies lowered BMI. Although statistically significant, food prices had only a small effect on children’s BMI
Interview with John Spence from the department of physical education and recreation at University of Alberta in Edmonton at the Obesity Boot Camp 2011
It’s no secret that Health Canada has been working on a discretionary food fortification policy for years. What’s less obvious is why the country’s food regulator can’t seem to figure out what to do.
The government of New Brunswick has pushed childhood obesity to the forefront with the Wellness Strategy Action Plan 2010-2011
The government of Nova Scotia has been working hard to develop programs and policies that target childhood obesity in the province
If policy makers did make this money available for addressing childhood obesity, it is not readily apparent on what specific interventions (population-wide or targeted) this money would actually be best spent to achieve this result
Scientists on the European Food Safety Authority’s NDA Panel have reached a major milestone in their work on health claims by publishing evaluations of the last group of ‘general function’ claims
 Children-Pediatrics                                                    
CDC: Children’s Food Environment State Indicator Report, 2011 19 July
Childhood obesity is caused by « a lack of healthy environments, » says the U.S. government
Supporting healthy food environments is a key strategy reducing childhood obesity and improving nutrition
VIDEO: Obesity Treatment in Children: role of parents and nutrition : 19 July
Interview with JP Chanoine, Pediatric Session at the Obesity Boot Camp 2011
 Nutrition – Diet                                                        
Protein in Your Diet: How Much is too Much? 19 July
According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, protein from foods like meat, fish and eggs should make up 26-percent of your daily caloric intake instead of the traditional 15-percent.
 Physical Activity- Sedentarity                                
VIDEO: Obesity Treatment in Children: role of physical activity 19 July
Interview with JP Chanoine, Pediatric Session at the Obesity Boot Camp 2011
Athletes had more slow-wave sleep and this was somehow protective and resulted in a feeling of restoration in the morning
 Psychology – Mental Health                                   
Personality traits play a role in body weight fluctuation 19 July
Greater weight gain are observed among impulsive people; those who enjoy taking risks; and those who are antagonistic – especially those who are cynical, competitive and aggressive
VIDEO: Mental Issues in the etiology and complications of obesity  23 July
Interview with Valerie Taylor, Mental Health Session at  the Obesity Boot Camp 2011
 Behaviour – Consumption                                        
Portion size and eating more often largely responsible for obesity: Study:  12 July
 Industry – Marketing                                          
Mrs. Obama’s food access initiatives: retailers say yes 22 July
Several supermarket and drug store chains—Walmart, SuperValue, and Walgreens among them—have committed to finding ways to put healthier foods into low-income areas
Junk Food Industry Determined to Target Kids and fight for it  M Simon  18 July 
Business : Campbell’s adding salt back to its soups  14 July
he government from enacting stronger regulations, puts limits on sugar, calories, sodium and saturated fat in products.