Obesity Research and Prevention News Review: 10 October 2011

by Paul Boisvert, PhD in collaboration with the Canadian Obesity Network  (CON)  and The Research Chair in Obesity from Université Laval
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Archive Obesity Research and Prevention Newsletter Review: 26 Sept 2011

International Symposium 2010 Bariatric/Metabolic Surgery: How it influences
energy balance regulation
IJO  Sep 2011; 35 (Supplement 3s) S1 – S49

Post doctoral Fellowship in Obesity in Université
Laval or University of Alberta: deadline 14 November

Key selected presentations Review from Obesity Society
annual meeting 2011 in Orlando oct 1-5
#obesity2011

Epidemilogy – Evaluation                                
Maternal smoking, gestational weight gain,
breastfeeding, and infant sleep duration: 4 factors predict child’s obesity
4 Oct #obesity2011
Targeting these four modifiable maternal and infant risk factors may make a
large impact on reducing childhood obesity


Etiology – Determinants
                                
Lipid cell Dysfunction Linked To Obesity And Metabolic
Disorders
Nature 26 Sept
The results show that fat cells in overweight people
have a higher capacity for storing fats but a lower capacity for ridding
themselves of them.

Role Of GLP-1 In The Resolution of Diabetes After Gastric
Bypass Surgery
| DrSharma 28 Sept
Some patients undergoing gastric bypass (GB) surgery
experience significantly increased insulin secretion following a meal,
sometimes even resulting in clinically significant hypoglycaemia. Increased
GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion contributes significantly to hyperinsulinism
in GB subjects. Increased secretion of GLP-1 following GB surgery, together
with other mechanisms including secretion of other enteric hormones, quicker
passage of food through the small bowel, reduction in liver fat, and weight loss
in general, may all play a role in the substantial glycemic improvements seen
with GB surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Orexin Hormone Fights White Fat With Brown Fat  4 Oct
Without orexin, mice are permanently programmed to be
obese. With it, brown fat is activated and they burn more calories. The next
steps is in determining how orexin—or a chemical that has the same effect—might
be used in humans to therapeutically prevent or treat obesity.
Cortisol may be one of the factors
causing obesity, hypertension and insulin resistant in shift workers
  6 Oct

Complications                                                     
Men Don’t Have To Be As Fat As Women To Get Type 2
Diabetes
4 Oct
Being overweight is a major risk factor for type 2
diabetes, but this study appears to show that men have to gain less weight than
women to develop the condition. Generally, men without diabetes have more fat
around the abdomen and in the liver than women, who conversely tend to carry a
greater proportion of their body fat under the skin, the so-called
« subcutaneous fat » which is thought to be less risky for type 2
diabetes and other health problems.

Treatment                                                         
Lorcaserin Reduced Weight and Improved Glycemic Control in Patients with
Type 2 Diabetes.
 #Obesity2011  4 Oct
Phase 3 results

Management                                                          
Eating sweets early in pregnancy can mean obese baby – USATODAY.com #Obesity2011 3 Oct
Overweight and obese women who were consuming more
than 20% of their calories from sweets (desserts, candy, soda) had more than
two times the risk of having an overweight or obese baby at birth and at six
months. The key lifestyle factors that helped: weighing themselves daily,
limiting fast food and watching calorie intake.

 Policy – Prevention – Regulations                      
Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies – Institute of Medicine 3 Oct #Obesity2011
The IOM reviewed factors related to overweight and
obesity from birth to age five, with a focus on nutrition, physical activity,
and sedentary behaviour. In this report, the IOM recommends actions that
healthcare professionals, caregivers, and policymakers can take to prevent
obesity in children five and younger.

Denmark taxes fatty foods 2.9$/kg of saturated fat in
a product for figthing fat consumption
. 2 Oct
The tax affects products like cooking oils, milk and
pre-cooked foods like pizzas. The tax is expected to raise about $400m, and cut
saturated fat consumption by close to 10%, and that of butter by 15%.

Tough Sell for Healthy Fare in School Vending Machines – NYTimes.com  4 Oct
The new vending machine sat unnoticed as students rushed past its baby
carrots, yogurt smoothies and hummus to neighbors dispensing Snapple, Doritos,
Goldfish and Cheez-It. The lunch period was nearly over before a potential
customer stopped to check out its offerings. “This is way too healthy for a
snack,” said John Achnitz, 15, a 10th grader. “Kids want healthy stuff like
baked Doritos, but not an apple that they can get at home free.”

 Children-Pediatrics                       
                    
the Alberta Project Promoting active Living & healthy Eating in
Schools (APPLE Schools)
–  28 Sept
Healthy school communities promote wellness and strive
to create environments that foster lifelong health and wellness.

Systematic Review On Sedentary Behaviour & Health
in School-Aged Children
| Obesity Panacea
Blog 27 Sept
Based on this systematic review of 232 studies, sedentary
behaviour (assessed primarily through increased TV viewing) for more than 2
hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased
fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased
academic achievement in school-aged children and youth (5-17 years).
School-Based Physical Activity Program Can Change The
Way Kids Eat,
Exercise – 30 Sept
A new study from the University of Missouri shows Jump
Into Action (JIA), a school-based physical activity program, is effective in
changing unhealthy youth behaviors.
 Nutrition – Diet                                 
                   
Fruits and veggies may prevent bowel cancer but not
fruit juices
: Study 26 Sept
Constant cravings – One in five of us skip breakfast
or lunch, and the more we slip, the worse we feel
Sept 15 those who skipped meals in this
survey also reported more negative symptoms than those who always ate three a
day­—and the more meals skipped, the worse shape they were in.
 Physical Activity-
Sedentarity                              

Physical activity for obese individuals: a systematic
review of effects on chronic disease risk factors
– Katzmarzyk Obesity Res 26 SepThere was great heterogeneity
in responses of risk factors across studies. In many studies it was difficult
to determine the effect of physical activity, independent of changes in body
mass consequent to the intervention. Obese individuals should be encouraged to
undertake physical activity following general recommendations for weight loss
and health. The degree to which physical activity is effective at lowering risk
factor levels among high-risk obese individuals is not known.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of
aerobic vs. resistance exercise training on visceral fat
–Ismail Obesity Res 26 Septaerobic exercise is central for
exercise programmes aimed at reducing VAT, and that aerobic exercise below
current recommendations for overweight/obesity management may be sufficient for
beneficial VAT modification.
Want To Lose Belly Fat? Aerobic Exercise Beats Weights 30 Aug
« Resistance training is great for improving
strength and increasing lean body mass. But if you are overweight, which
two-thirds of the population is, and you want to lose belly fat, aerobic
exercise is the better choice because it burns more calories. » They found
that aerobic training reduces visceral fat and liver fat considerably. Aerobic
training was also found to be better at improving fasting insulin resistance,
compared to doing weights. It also reduced liver enzymes and fasting
triglyceride levels more effectively.
« School-Based Physical Activity Program Can
Change The Way Kids Eat, Exercise
 » – 3
Oct

 Psychology – Mental
Health                                 

Governor Chris Christie’s Weight and the Oval Office:
Viewpoint on Weight and Capacity to do Politics
– NYTimes.com 2 Oct
Chris Christie about his weight: The thinness that I
managed in college didn’t reflect laudable self-control. It reflected bulimia
and laxatives. My borderline obesity in my mid-30s wasn’t a sign of indolence
and drift. Professionally, I was working harder and more reliably than ever.

 Behaviour
– Consumption
                  
               
Top 20 sources of
Calories for Americans
WebMD 26 Sept
#1 Grain-based desserts #2 Breads #3 Chicken #4 Soft
drinks #5 pizza

A Cornell University study says we are three times
more likely to eat the first thing we see at home
26 Sept
if a healthy salad is first in the line of vision, we
are much more likely to have it for dinner than if the ingredients for it are
stored at the back of the fridge behind a pile of fattening ready-meals.
MYTH: Junk Food Costs Cheaper than Healthy Meals Cooked at
Home
– NYTimes.com
In general, despite extensive government subsidies,
hyperprocessed food remains more expensive than food cooked at home. The
alternative to soda is water, and the alternative to junk food is not grass-fed
beef and greens from a trendy farmers’ market, but anything other than junk
food: rice, grains, pasta, beans, fresh vegetables, canned vegetables, frozen
vegetables, meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, bread, peanut butter, a
thousand other things cooked at home — in almost every case a far superior
alternative.

Children’s packed lunches ‘lack fruit and veg’ BBC News – 4 Oct
40% of lunchboxes do not contain any fruit or
vegetables, compared with 10% of school dinners. It said parents should
consider switching to school meals.

What’s for kids’ breakfast? Cereal, sodas, candy, yogurt; 20% skipped
breakfast
; #obesity2011 – USATODAY.com 4 Oct

 Industry –
Marketing
                  
                
     
Restaurants and fast-food outlets will be forced to
list calories on their menus in Australia
| thetelegraph.com.au  27 Sept
NSW will become the nation’s first state to force fast
food chains to reveal their energy counts or face heavy fines and penalties
under the new Fast Choices legislation. The chains will have to display the
average energy content of the foods they sell as well as the average adult
daily energy intake of 2070 Calories. There are about 40 chains, with a total
of about 2700 outlets, that are covered by the law. These include supermarkets
and bakeries, as well as pizza, coffee and juice bar chains that serve
ready-to-eat foods in standard portions with regular sizes and content.

Key messages from Obesity Society annual meeting 2011 in Orlando

Obesity Society’s Annual Scientific Meeting in Orlando Oct 1-5

Here are the key messages and selected presentations I attended or were reported on tweeter and the newspapers.
Other key messages and presentations can be found on twitter at the tag
See TOS final program .
The conference was held at  Marriott World Center, Orlando, FL Oct 1-5.

Behaviour-Psychology
What’s for kids’ breakfast? Cereal, sodas, candy, yogurt; 20% skipped breakfast;  – read USATODAY.com 
80% adolescents underestimate calories at fast food restaurants: 464 cal while they consume 746 cal!  EthanSimsAward
Boutelle about Appetite Awareness Training: resist 20 min and temptations get down 

Snacking
Popkins: snacks account for 26% daily cal 2008; 18% in 1977 from – 1.23 to 2.38 snacks. 
Foster about fast, cheap and easy snacking: snacks taken outside are very low in proteins (5%) and fiber (1g) but ok in sat fat

food environment :
Drewnowski  :
-Residential property values predict obesity rates in women better than education or income!
-There is an 8-fold difference in obesity rates depending on the supermarket chain you shop at.; obese people shop at Albertsons or Safeway (30+%obesity) and not at Whole Foods (4% obesity)
-Proximity to supermarkets was unrelated to obesity rates. People who don’t live in food deserts drive to them to shop!

 S.Kumanyika: Level of education is not necessarily predictive of ability to navigate food environment in low SES neighborhoods 

Nutrition
Joann Manson at key message: more vitamin D does not mean necessarily better
Vitamin D may help prevent some cancers and CVD risks, but research are inconsistent see IOM report

New « SuperFiber » called SAEF for Weight Management  by Gelesis. Sig. outperforms top fibers    RT

Lifestyle intervention in the real world
Yanovski : Implementing efficient intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss cost 1500$/year; group lifestyle 213$!

Weight management
Rena Wing about weight loss maintenance: after 10 years follow-up, if maintaining high physical activity regain 4,5 kg; if decreased, weight regain 9 kg;  more physical activity and more replacement meals and more follow-up sessions mean more weight loss maintenance

Interventions studies and environment
KIm Raine: Healthy Alberta Communities for better look at http://healthyalbertacommunities.com/ 
Oreskovic: Distance to school is the strongest predictor of active transportation; 44% kids walked in 1968, 13% in 2008!!

Weight Linked to Home Address Exposed to Traffic, Pollution, Secondary Smokefrom MedPage Today 

Physiology
D Clegg : Changes in adipose distribution, morphology, and physiology may be key players in increased CV risk postmenopause –  @

Media training :
Key points: Have a key message bottom line and … most important factor: body language, appearance, how you look, before what you say!!

Deabate on Food Industry:
with    @ : Food Industry: Friend or Foe. The great debate’s online!
Porcupine sex analogy: Bottom line, someone usually gets screwed or is afraid of.  debating Food Industry Partnership: it’s all about trust and benefits but risky business for … public health org
during debate on Food Industry Partnership: any big one is in favor for a « balanced » healthy diet or lifestyle
: Educating the public directly, to demand more healthful products is only way to influence food industry.

If food companies use celebrities to sell their products does that make the food, the celebrity or both the « bad » guy?

« Can health organizations really further obesity treatment and prevention by helping to sell food? »

More from food industry itself
ConAgra Foods: Frozen single serve meal is an option for portion-calorie control; but is it an Healthy Choice?
Kraft: hint of salt is more successfull than low sodium in Ritz cookies
« Kraft sells 900 million servings of Kraft food per day. When we think about reach … » Dr. Diane Finegood
« My dream would be to have all macaroni + cheese be whole grain. »!! Richard Black, PhD, VP Nutrition, Kraft Foods Global (Note: great things begin with a dream, as long as you do not dream all your life!)
see blog report from

Industry Self-Regulation for better food choice to kids
Marlene Schwartz:   : children’s cereals advertized xontain 85% more sugar, 65% less fibers 60% more sodium
Is marketing to children has decreased?: NO

Bariatric Surgery
Lap band debate RT

DoctorsofWeightLoss

Duodenal jejunal liner improves DM control in 1 year trial; larger study and longer follow up post removal next steps- de Moura RT

Treatment-Drugs
Arena Pharm: Lorcaserin Reduced Weight and Improved Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. 


Perinatality
Eating sweets early in pregnancy can mean obese baby – read  USATODAY.com
Dr. S. Smith believes peripheral targets will be way of future+combos of central+peripheral targets will be 3rd gen from
Childhood Obesity
Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies – Institute of Medicine 

Physical activity


Connie Diekman  Physical activity impacts chronic disease more than it generates weight loss. 

Sedentarity

Troiano: Sedentarity is time sitting at TV watching, screen time and driving
Hamilton: Exercising coach potato exists!!: Exercise does not prevent from acute metabolic consequence of too much inactivity
Hamilton: Sedentary behaviour (mainly sitting too much) is not the same as too little exercise
Katzmarzyk : In addition of promoting moderate to vigorous P.A. and healthy weight, physicians should discourage sitting and being sedentary for extended periods of time
Katzmarzyk about sedentary lifestyle : people sit 5h a day in average
Katzmarzyk: If no TV viewing, life expectancy at birth increase approx 1,5 year
Katzmarzyk: Dose-response association between sitting time and chronic disease risk and mortality independently of physical activity