in collaboration with the Canadian Obesity Network  (CON)  and The Research Chair in Obesity from Université Laval

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Archive: Obesity Research and Prevention
Newsletter Review: 12 Sept 2011

International Symposium 2010 IJO  Sep 2011; 35 (Supplement 3s) Bariatric/Metabolic Surgery: How it influences energy balance regulation: S1 – S49

Canada’s first research chair in
bariatric and metabolic surgery at Universite Laval
19 Sept
The chair’s several goals will include optimizing
management practices for patients awaiting bariatric surgery, improving
post-operative monitoring, and developing minimally invasive therapeutic
interventions for those suffering from severe obesity. The senior chairholder
will be Université Laval research professor André Tchernof, an expert in the
field of molecular endocrinology. He will be assisted by IUCPQ surgeon and
clinician Dr. Fady Moustarah.

 Epidemiology-
Evaluation                             
Is ‘Food Addiction’ a Subtype of
Obesity
?  A Sharma 14 Sept
In a paper just published in Appetite, Caroline Davis and colleagues from Toronto’s York
University provide evidence suggesting that ‘food addiction’ (FA) may be a
valid clinical sub-phenotype of obesity that may possess different
vulnerabilities to environmental risk factors.

Belly Fat’ Linked to Development of
Asthma
26 sept
Obese waist circumference but normal BMI? You’re 44%
more likely to have asthma. Add obesity by BMI & it jumps to 81%.

Etiology – Determinants
                                
White to BAT Fat Phenotypic Switch
Induced by Genetic and Social Environment Activation of Hypothalamic-Adipocyte
Axis
14 Sept
 Living in an enriched environment with complex
physical and social stimulation leads to improved cognitive and metabolic
health. In white fat, enrichment induced the upregulation of the brown fat cell
fate determining gene Prdm16, brown fat-specific markers, and genes involved in
thermogenesis and
β-adrenergic signaling.

Exercise Can Produce Healthy Chatter
Between Bone, Fat And Pancreatic Cells
22 Sept
Cells in bone, fat and the pancreas appear to be
talking to each other and one thing they likely are saying is, « Get
moving. » Blood levels of the hormone osteocalcin, made by bone-producing
osteoblasts, might be a good indicator of how things are going in all three
areas. The idea is that bones can possibly sense environmental stimuli such as
being physically active or sedentary and dictate energy regulation accordingly
Deadly Link Between High Salt Intake And
Obesity May Be Explained By Abnormal Activation Of A Protein
 21 Sept
high dietary salt intake and obesity work together to
trigger an abnormal activation of a cellular protein called Rac1. hen obese
« salt-sensitive » rats were fed a high-salt diet, the team found that
Rac1 activated the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) on the rats’ kidney cells. Both
of these substances promote the reabsorption of salt, which causes the body to
retain fluid and results in high blood pressure.
Do
you eat when you’re stressed? This new study knows why
– The Globe and Mail August
A Canadian study has pinpointed how stress can
temporarily rewire the nerve cells in the brain to ramp up hunger pangs.
Complications                                                     
Canadian MDs consider denying
fertility treatments to obese women
– The Globe and Mail 21 Sept
Some studies find obese women  with BMI>35
face higher risks of medical complications while trying to become pregnant
through in-vitro fertilization (IVF). The science is not certain and some
believe a ban would be tantamount to discrimination, yet a growing number of
fertility doctors worldwide already bar treatment based on a woman’s Body Mass
Index.

Should
obese women be denied fertility treatments in Canada?
– thestar.com with comments by YoniFreedhoff 21 Sept
Risky and ineffective? Or discrimination?
Treatment                                                      
Compounds that stimulate
thermogenesis in obesity management: from pharma to functional food
Dulloo -Obesity Reviews Sept
The concept of managing obesity through the
stimulation of thermogenesis is currently a focus of considerable attention by
the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and functional food industries. Compounds or
combination of compounds with thermogenic and fat-oxidizing potentials are
those that possess both sympathomimetic stimulatory activity and acetyl-coA
carboxylase inhibitory property, and are capable of targeting both skeletal
muscle and brown adipose tissue. The thermogenic potentials of products so far
tested in humans range from marginal to modest, i.e. 2–5% above daily energy
expenditure.

Promising New Obesity Drug Contrave® Looks Set
For FDA Approval 
 22
Sept
A promising new drug for treating Obesity known as
Contrave® developed by Orexigen Therapuetics, appears to have moved into the
final states of FDA review, clearing the way for probable approval. Contrave®
is a combination of naltrexone HCl and bupropion HCl that was studied for
treatment of obese people with a benchmark of losing and maintaining a 5%
weight loss.

Management                                                          
How To Discuss Weight With Your
Patient
report from colleague about
counseling DrSharma 16 Sept
Based on a systematic search of the literature on this
topic, it is clear that patients describe a need for empathy, nonjudgmental
interactions, and specific personalized recommendations. This is actually rule
1 of 
10 tips for
family docs
, and if nothing
else, this is the only rule that all health professionals should adhere to –
always!

Why Even Resolute Dieters Often Fail – NYTimes.com  20 Sept
If you’ve been trying for years to lose unwanted
pounds and keep them off, unrealistic goals may be the reason you’ve failed. It
turns out that a long-used rule of weight loss — reduce 3,500 calories (or burn
an extra 3,500) to lose one pound of body fat — may be incorrect and can
ultimately doom determined dieters.

Fat burners: nutrition supplements
that increase fat metabolism
– Obesity Reviews  22 Sept
The term ‘fat burner’ is used to describe nutrition
supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy
expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat
oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote
fat metabolism. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve
fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine,
carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and
fucoxanthin. Caffeine and green tea are the only compounds that have data to
back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties

Attacking the Obesity Epidemic by
First Figuring Out Its Cause
New York Times 12 Sept
The obvious could be not so obvious indeed

The 5 A’s Approach To Obesity
Counseling
 A
Sharma  19 Sept
a framework for behavioural counselling known as the 5
A’s (ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange). An adaptation of the 5 A’s for
obese patients includes assessment of patient health risk, assessment of
current behavior and readiness to change, advising the patient to change
specific behaviors, agreeing about the behaviors and collaboratively setting
goals, assisting patients in addressing barriers and securing support, and
arranging for follow-up

 Policy – Prevention –
Regulations                      
USDA Rolls Out First Themed MyPlate
Healthy Eating Message
: 13 Sept
Make Half Your Plate Fruits and Vegetables

Policies that promote healthy eating
could cut heart disease deaths by half, UK study finds
20 Sept
The study identifies six foods which make could a
significant improvement to cardiovascular disease rate. Researchers estimate
that eating more fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts (in place of starch),
vegetable oils (in place of animal fats) and fish and seafood in the diet it
would result in 9.2million fewer deaths globally. Likewise, limiting our intake
of salt and industrial trans fats would have a positive effect on CVD rates and
could save 2.6 million lives globally.
UN Expert Calls for Regulations on
Unhealthy Foods
 17 Sept
The UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food has
called for counter-efforts to the promotion of unhealthy, processed foods, the
advertising of which especially impacts children.

Conflicts
of interest and the UN high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases
: The Lancet
CMAJ: Canada
instrumental in watering down elements of noncommunicable diseases plan

cspi
Critics say that Canada was instrumental in pressing
for the exclusion of a pledge to support universal health care, in removing a
passage that would have limited the impact that food and alcohol corporations
have on public health policies, and in not addressing trade-related barriers to
global health.

 Children-Pediatrics                       
                      
Special report on Childhood Obesity CON Conduit Fall 2011

What’s really driving the childhood
obesity epidemic
? Sept
Our environment has undergone dramatic change in recent years, but why
aren’t all children equally susceptible to the weight-promoting lifestyle of
the 21st century?
 

Obese 8- and 9-year-olds are more likely to suffer socially and
emotionally than their normal-weight peers, a new study finds.
How to Talk About Weight With Your
Child
 WebMD: 19 Sept
« Saying ‘We need to talk about your weight,’ puts
a lot of pressure on the kid. Instead, parents should talk about healthy eating
and exercise habits. But this shouldn’t be a one-time, big talk. It should be
an ongoing conversation, even if your child is not overweight.
The role of parents in
pre-adolescent and adolescent overweight and obesity treatment
– Obesity Reviews  22 Sept
The study aims to describe clinical recommendations
(i) on the role of parents in both pre-adolescent and adolescent overweight and
obesity treatment; (ii) to health professionals on how to involve parents in
paediatric overweight and obesity treatment
Clinician-Parent Collaboration to
Optimize Pediatric Weight Management
DrSharma Obesity Notes 23
Sept
Current approaches to managing childhood obesity
recommend family-centred-care (FCC). Effective collaboration between clinicians
and parents which include a positive therapeutic relationship, negotiation of
health care delivery, and regular monitoring and evaluation, emphasizes the
importance of tailoring health services to families’ needs, respect parents as
experts, and identify clinician responsiveness as pivotal to partnerships with
families.

 Nutrition –
Diet                                 
                   
Slides: Global
dimensions of sugary beverages in programmatic and policy solutions
by Barry Popkin 22 Sept

Trying to cut calories? Up the
protein first
– Leslie Beck The
Globe and Mail 16 August

 Physical Activity-
Sedentarity                              
The neurocognitive connection between
physical activity and eating behaviour
– Joseph – Obesity Reviews – 22 Sept
This impulsive eating drive may be counteracted by
physical activity due to its enhancement of neurocognitive resources for
executive functions and goal-oriented behaviour. By enhancing the resources
that facilitate ‘top-down’ inhibitory control, increased physical activity may
help compensate and suppress the hedonic drive to over-eat. Understanding how
physical activity and eating behaviours interact on a neurocognitive level may
help to maintain a healthy lifestyle in an obesogenic environment.

 Behaviour
– Consumption
                  
            
Canadians consume 26 teaspoons of
sugar daily: StatsCan
 22 Sept
That amounts to 110 grams a day and accounts for 21.4
per cent of Canadians’ overall calorie intake. The total includes sugar that
occurs naturally in food such as milk and fruit, as well as sugar that is
added, the latter of which tends to be less nutritious. 35 per cent — of
Canadians’ sugar intake was from foods outside the categories of grains, fruits
and vegetables, meat products and milk products. This « other » food
category, which includes things such as candy and soft drinks, is where added
sugar is most likely to be found, Statistics Canada said.

A good night’s sleep may reduce risk
of type 2 diabetes in obese teens
 20 Sept
to keep glucose levels stable, the optimal amount of
sleep for teenagers is 7.5 to 8.5 hours per night.