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Epidemiology – Evaluation
‘Freshman College 15’ Weight Gain a Myth? ‘Freshman 3’
May Be More Realistic – NYTimes 7 Nov
According to a new study, freshmen actually gain an
average of 2.5 to 3.5 pounds, and the weight gain has little to do with college
Level: 9 Nov
Study determines that BMI 23-28 kg/m2 should be limit
compared with current limit of BMI 30 kg/m2, due to increased risk of heart
disease and diabetes among South Asians
Kids whose fathers were overweight were +4 times more
likely than other children to have weight problems themselves 11 Nov
On the other hand, an overweight or obese mother made
little difference to the chances of her child developing their own weight
From 2005 to 2010 the obesity/overweight rate in
children in California dropped one percentage point, offering hope that the
three-decade-long increase may be finally turning. However, the authors
emphasize that rates are still extremely high – three times higher among 12-19
year olds and four times higher among 6-11 year olds than they were in the
Etiology – Determinants
Gut Hormones PYY(3-36) and GLP-1(7-36 amide) can Mimic
Food Effects On Brain
DrSharma 11 Nov
Hunger and satiety are mediated by a range of
peripheral signals to the brain. A new study published in Cell Metabolism, shows that infusion of two gut hormones can reduce food intake and
mimic the central effects of a meal in humans.
Male and female mice engineered to express the
inflammatory enzyme IKKbeta in their fat tissue ate more but gained less
weight. They burned sugar and fat more effectively than mice who were left
unaltered. The research may shed light on how obesity and inflammation affect
insulin resistance and sensitivity.
regulation of body weight and composition during energy deficit. Obesity Reviews – Nov
Energy deficit in lean or obese animals or humans
stimulates appetite, reduces energy expenditure and possibly also decreases
physical activity, thereby contributing to weight regain. Often overlooked in
weight loss trials for obesity, however, is the effect of energy restriction on
neuroendocrine status. Negative energy balance in lean animals and humans
consistently inhibits activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid,
-gonadotropic and -somatotropic axes (or reduces circulating insulin-like
growth factor-1 levels), while concomitantly activating the
hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, with emerging evidence of similar changes
in overweight and obese people during lifestyle interventions for weight loss.
These neuroendocrine changes, which animal studies show may result in part from
hypothalamic actions of orexigenic (e.g. neuropeptide Y, agouti-related
peptide) and anorexigenic peptides (e.g. alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone,
and cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript), can adversely affect body
composition by promoting the accumulation of adipose tissue (particularly
central adiposity) and stimulating the loss of lean body mass and bone.
sugar-sweetened beverages – YouTube myhealthywaist 8 Nov
This video presented by leading researchers and health
experts at the Sustaining the Blue Planet: Global Water Education Conference
details findings and applications on the importance of healthful hydration.
Let’s Go! School Nutrition Manager examined the finding that healthy
hydration by water and decrease of sweetened beverages could help in reducing
calories while maintaining profits? – Obesity Reviews – Nov
On a global basis, total revenues and energy per
capita sold increased, yet the average energy density (kJ 100 mL−1)
sold declined slightly, suggesting a shift to lower-calorie products. In the
United States, both total energy per capita and average energy density of
beverages sold decreased, while the opposite was true in the developing markets
of Brazil and China, with total per capita energy increasing greatly in China
and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil.
Fatty Foods Addictive as Cocaine in Growing Body of
Science – Businessweek 9 Nov
A growing body of medical research at leading
universities and government laboratories suggests that processed foods and
sugary drinks made by the likes of PepsiCo Inc. and Kraft Foods Inc. aren’t
simply unhealthy. They can hijack the brain in ways that resemble addictions to
cocaine, nicotine and other drugs. Lab studies have found sugary drinks and
fatty foods can produce addictive behavior in animals. Brain scans of obese
people and compulsive eaters, meanwhile, reveal disturbances in brain reward
circuits similar to those experienced by drug abusers.
5 ways to reduce your risk of diabetes – 8 Nov
Drop extra pounds. Move more. Eat more fiber and whole
grains. Don’t smoke. Stick to one or two drinks max.
and Adolescents: Are They Appropriate? Nov
Sports and energy drinks are being marketed to
children and adolescents for a wide variety of inappropriate uses. Sports
drinks and energy drinks are significantly different products, and the terms
should not be used interchangeably. The primary objectives of this clinical
report are to define the ingredients of sports and energy drinks, categorize
the similarities and differences between the products, and discuss misuses and
Older adults who are heavy, especially around the
middle, seem to have a higher risk of developing colon cancer than their
thinner peers, a new study finds. They also suggest that exercise could be an
important part of the picture, particularly for women.
and Health Information 16 Nov
Drinking two or more sugar-sweetened beverages a day
may expand a woman’s waistline and increase her risk of heart disease and
diabetes, according to this study.
New Drug Cuts Blood Supply To Fat
Cells For Weight Loss 14 Nov
A study explains a new approach to weight loss, a drug called Adipotide, that
basically reduces the blood supply specifically to fat cells, causing them to
simply wither away.
Management – Prevention
Your Body Is Ready and Set To Wait Months For Your
Weight To Come Back after Weight Loss drsharma 8 Nov
The weight loss was associated with significant
reductions in levels of leptin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin, insulin, and
amylin, whereas levels of ghrelin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and
pancreatic polypeptide increased – most of these changes were still clearly
evident at 62 weeks. Given these profound and persistent hormonal changes that
affect hunger, appetite, and metabolism, it should come as no surprise that
maintaining weight loss is so difficult. It certainly seems like the
homeostatic system is happy to wait for the weight to come back – even if this
takes several months or even years.
behavioural interventions for controlling and preventing obesity – Obesity Reviews – Nov
Schools are an attractive and popular setting for
implementing interventions for children. There is a growing body of empirical
research exploring the efficacy of school-based obesity prevention programs.
Intervention components in the school setting associated with a significant
reduction of weight in children included long-term interventions with combined
diet and physical activity and a family component. Several reviews also found
gender differences in response to interventions. Of the eight reviews, five
were deemed of high quality and yet limited evidence was found on which to base
Physicians, with the aid of their medical assistants
and meal-replacement plans, can help obese people lose and keep off 10 pounds
over two years. They also had improvements in their HDL (good)
cholesterol, triglycerides and waist circumferences.
Protein key to curbing overeating and preventing
obesity – 15 Nov
The researchers found subjects who ate a 10 per cent
protein diet consumed 12 per cent more energy over four days than those eating
a 15 per cent protein diet. Moreover, 70 per cent of the increased energy
intake on the lower protein diet was attributed to snacking. When the protein
content was further increased to 25 per cent, however, the researchers observed
no change in behaviour relative to the 15 per cent protein diet. On the fourth
day of the trial, however, there was a greater increase in the hunger score
between one to two hours after the 10 per cent protein breakfast versus the 25
per cent protein breakfast. If you reduce your calorie intake but fail to reach
your protein target you will find it hard to resist hunger pangs.
Finland: Healthy lifestyle reduces death from heart
disease rate by up to 80% 13 Nov
Regular exercise, a diet rich in fruit and vegetables,
and low in saturated fat are among the best steps we can take to beat heart
disease. Consuming less salt, ideally less than 5g per day, helps keep blood
pressure – a key risk factor for developing stroke – in the normal range.
Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables helps, as does avoiding obesity
(keeping your body mass index below 25) and reducing sugar consumption to
reduce the risk of diabetes. Working more than 11 hours a day raises a person’s
risk of cardiovascular disease compared with someone who works seven or eight
hours. Light to moderate drinking – about one unit of alcohol per day for women
and two for men – seems to offer some protection against coronary heart
disease, most likely because alcohol can improve cholesterol levels and reduce
the tendency of the blood to clot. Heavy or binge drinking, however, can cause
cardiovascular problems, and even light drinking is associated with an
increased risk of other diseases, such as cancer.
Children – Pediatrics
Web-based intervention appears ineffective for
preventing weight gain in adolescents: 7 Nov
A web-based computer-tailored intervention aiming to
increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behavior, and promote healthy
eating among adolescents was not associated with positive long-term outcome
measures, but may have positive short-term effects on eating behaviors,
according to a report published Online First by Archives of Pediatrics &
societal norms rather than lifestyle programs DrSharma 10 Nov
The childhood obesity epidemic is just one symptom of
our way of living. Reversing the epidemic may require that we apply a new
approach to improving child health in the 21st century. One approach is
to make societal changes to enhance human well-being rather than to
prevent a particular symptom, such as childhood obesity. In the process, we may
address obesity and other socially determined health conditions while
preventing new ones from emerging.
While their review of 19 studies on this topic showed
that kids participating in sports were indeed more physically active than kids
who did not participate, overall they found no clear relationship between
participation and weight status. While 12 studies did note some (albeit small)
differences in body weight in selected subgroups (but not the entire study
population in these studies), the other 7 studies found no differences in body
weight at all. It appears that both the potential benefits and downsides of
sports as a means to tackling obesity have more to do with the impact of sports
(and sport settings) on caloric intake than expenditure.
Researchers found two factors that may explain this:
the mothers’ weight around the time they gave birth and whether the mothers
smoked. These two factors were found to be much more important than the other
criteria that were studied, such as the child’s birth weight. Research adds to
the growing evidence that the perinatal environment has an important influence
on later obesity.
Nutrition – Diet
Men and heavy people may outpace women and slim people
in eating speed 9 Nov
Researchers also discovered that people with a higher
body mass index in general ate much faster than those with a lower BMI.
Two new studies by researchers at the University of
Rhode Island are providing additional insights into the role that eating rate
plays in the amount of food one consumes. The studies found that men eat
significantly faster than women, heavier people eat faster than slimmer people,
and refined grains are consumed faster than whole grains, among other findings.
Physical Activity –
less likely to be active than suburban ones – density matters 28 Oct
Where houses are crammed, yards are small and there’s
more traffic, there may be no place for kids to play,” says Janssen. “Whereas
if you have a quiet cul-de-sac it becomes a playground.
Kids Don’t Walk To School | Dr. Sharma’s Obesity Notes 24 Nov
The two most commonly raised issues were concerns
about the safety of crossing streets (54%) and the availability of sidewalks
(54%). Additional factors included distance to school (46%), traffic volume
(42%), parental attitudes (27%), traffic speed (27%), neighborhood condition
(24%), and student attitudes (10%).
Medical News: Banning Soda in Schools Ineffective?? – MedPage Today
Although the ban significantly cut down on
student-reported access at school, about 85% of students reported having at
least one soda or other sweet drink in the prior week whether they could get
the beverages at school or not.
inventory. Americans’ lay-beliefs about appropriate eating : Appetite Oct
What do American adults believe about what, where,
when, how much, and how often it is appropriate to eat? Such normative beliefs
originate from family and friends through socialization processes, but they are
also influenced by governments, educational institutions, and businesses. Norms
therefore provide an important link between the social environment and
individual attitudes and behaviors.
Everything you need to know about the front of package
label debate. MT marionnestle: 6 Nov