in collaboration with the Canadian Obesity Network  (CON)  and The Research Chair in Obesity from Université Laval

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Obesity Research and Prevention Newsletter Review: Vol 9 no 19: 1 August 2011

 Epidemiology- Evaluation                                                       
Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) Evaluation Tool lets health providers better predict than BMI Classification which obese patients are at risk for death:  15 August …and which ones don’t need to lose weight at all. The importance of EOSS is that it puts an emphasis on individualized treatment needs depending on how at-risk the patient is, not how much they weigh.
South Asians at higher risk of obesity-related health problems  29 July
Etiology – Determinants                                                      
New Link Found Between Obesity And Insulin Resistance by examining the levels of proteins in the livers: 3 August
Scientists at Joslin Diabetes Center now have uncovered a new way in which obesity wreaks its havoc, by altering the production of proteins that affect how other proteins are spliced together. In the case of these proteins whose production drops in the livers of obese people, this process changes the function of other proteins that can cause excess fat to be made in the liver.
Why Diets Don’t Work: Starved Brain Cells Eat Themselves: 3 August
When we don’t eat, hunger-inducing neurons in the brain start eating bits of themselves. That act of self-cannibalism turns up a hunger signal involving AGrP and MSH to prompt eating.
Complications                                                                 
Mechanisms linking obesity to hypertension – Obesity Reviews – : 15 August
Overweight and obesity are associated with adipose tissue dysfunction, characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and marked changes in secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. This results in chronic vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic overdrive, eventually leading to hypertension.
Obesity – Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue Gene Expression of Serum Adipokines That Predict Type 2 Diabetes:
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is predicted by central obesity and circulating adipokines regulating inflammation. Increased production of these proinflammatory molecules by VAT may explain the links observed between visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes risk. #bestof2010
Obesity – Interaction of Leptin and Amylin in the Long-term Maintenance of Weight Loss in Diet-induced Obese Rats: combined amylin + leptin agonism elicits synergistic weight loss in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Maintenance of amylin + leptin–mediated weight loss requires continued treatment with both agonists, and is accompanied by sustained improvements in body composition, and indices of lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. #bestof2010
NEW STUDY: Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men. 4 AugustSugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with a significantly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas the association between artificially sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes was largely explained by health status, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, and body mass index.

Treatment                                                          
Bariatric Surgery Reduces Response to Food Cues?  A Sharma 8 August
patients tell you how their previous obsession and desire to eat (many liken this to a addiction) before surgery, has been replaced with a surprising disinterest, not to say, indifference to foods that they previously found most tempting and rewarding. Following surgery, there was a distinct decrease in the activation of key areas of the brain known to be involved in the mesolimbic reward pathways in response to high-caloric highly palatable food cues (pepperoni pizza, fudge sundae).

Obesity Treatment – FDA Approves Phentermine Resin Extended-Release Capsules:  3 August
Phentermine Resin Extended-Release Capsules, 15 mg and 30 mg will be sold through bariatric clinics and are the therapeutic equivalent to the reference listed drug, Ionamin® Capsules, 15 mg and 30 mg, of UCB, Inc. Phentermine Resin will be used to manage exogenous obesity as a short-term (a few weeks) associate in the treatment of weight reduction.
Management                                                          
STUDY: Dieters are more prone to future weight gain apparently independently of genetic factors @DrSharma 11 August
 
Policy – Prevention – Regulations                                
Is the Government Setting Us Up to Make Bad Food Choices?  11 August
It costs more to eat healthy, and government is partially to blame partly because of distribution of subventions.
Foreign Affairs pushed for looser rules on caffeinated drinks set up by Health Canada last year: The Gazette 11 August
It came up “as a surprise” from nowhere suddenly in March 2010 because it was in contradiction with the priority to decrease consumption of soft drinks. Now we know the political reasons.
Healthy Eating Costs Much More In America:  10 August
Consumers spend an extra $380/year – and that is just for getting enough potassium
CSPI urges revision of ‘understated’ serving size information: CSPI 3 August
CSPI claims that current serving sizes as indicated on food packages do not always reflect what Americans actually eat, meaning that labels can understate the amount of sugar, sodium, saturated fat or the number of calories that are likely to be consumed in one sitting.
 Children-Pediatrics                                                    
Report: Food Environments Near Home and School Related to Consumption of Soda and Fast Food:  12 August
Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments
Obesity – The Role of Parental Motivation in Family-Based Treatment for Childhood Obesity: 2011
The results underscore the importance of addressing parental motivation, specifically parental confidence for changing lifestyle related behaviors, early in the treatment process. Doing so may reduce treatment dropout and enhance treatment outcome.
 Nutrition – Diet                                                        
Obesity – Dietary Whey Protein Decreases Food Intake and Body Fat in Rats: 2011
High-protein content fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas Whey protein fed rats show decreased food intake
Salt Reduction Measures Must Be Taken By Health Policy Makers, Say Experts 12 August
8.5 million deaths over 10 yrs could be averted in 23 high burden countries if salt intake is reduced by 15%
 Physical Activity- Sedentarity                                
Too Much Sitting is Not the Same as Too Little Physical Activity: by @TravisSaunders 15 August
the amount of sedentary behaviour you engage in has a large impact on health, regardless of your level of physical activity

Even small amounts of exercise can result in major health benefits. 2 August
just 75 minutes a week, half the government’s recommendation, which amounts to an easy 15-minute walk each weekday — offered significant benefit compared to those who do not exercise at all. But more brings more benefits

 Psychology – Mental Health                                   
What are some emotions that you eat around? 29 July
We have to make choices around food all the time + those eating choices are almost always connected to a ‘feeling’ that we don’t want to feel, but instead, we eat through it. What are some emotions that you eat around? Watch the clip to hear what others had to say!
Comfort eating helps stave off the blues: study 2 August
A sweet tooth might not be the only reason why we reach for ice cream and cake in times of stress. Eating fat seems to make us less vulnerable to sad emotions
 Behaviour – Consumption                                        
Mindless Eating Can Make You Fat, But It Can Also Make You Healthy: 10 August
The secret is to change your environment so it works for you rather than against you. Simple strategies are far more likely to succeed than willpower alone. It’s easier to change your environment than to change your mind.
The Problem With Non Uniform Serving Sizes on the Nutritional Fact Table – NYTimes.com: 2 August
According to its label, a pint of Häagen-Dazs ice cream contains four servings. But when was the last time you measured out a fourth of a container of Cookies & Cream, then put the rest away for another day?
Happy Meals? The Nutritional Value Of What Kids Actually Eat At A Fast Food Restaurant 4 August
We found that families perceived fast-food restaurants as easy and cheap, and many were using fast food as a reward for their children
Importance of Family Meals – Watch WebMD Video: 3 August
only 1/3 14 year-old’s regularly have dinner with their families
 Industry – Marketing                                          
EATWELL results: how can private sector marketing techniques help improve public health? (EUFIC):  12 August
But what can we learn from the private sector, which has considerable experience with tools designed to influence consumer food choice? Part of the EATWELL project was to carry out an investigation of private sector marketing techniques to consider whether these may be applicable to public efforts to promote healthier eating.

Study: Industry Has Found Sneaky Way to Keep Advertising Junk Food to Kids: 11 August
Ads down, but replaced with product placement. The study comes at a rotten time for food and beverage advertisers, which are in a heated battle over the federal government’s new proposed voluntary guidelines on marketing to children, which, if followed, would affect every marketing tactic from advertising to packaging to sponsorships.